CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

DEFINATION

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic progressive condition that affects the pumping power of your heart muscles. While often referred to simply as “heart failure,” CHF specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up around the heart and causes it to pump inefficiently.

Heart failure does not mean the heart has stopped working. Rather, it means that the heart’s pumping power is weaker than normal. With heart failure, blood moves through the heart and body at a slower rate, and pressure in the heart increases. As a result, the heart cannot pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs. The chambers of the heart may respond by stretching to hold more blood to pump through the body or by becoming stiff and thickened. This helps to keep the blood moving, but the heart muscle walls may eventually weaken and become unable to pump as efficiently. As a result, the kidneys may respond by causing the body to retain fluid (water) and salt. If fluid builds up in the arms, legs, ankles, feet, lungs, or other organs, the body becomes congested, and congestive heart failure is the term used to describe the condition.

ANATOMY
You have four heart chambers. The upper half of your heart has two atria, and the lower half of your heart has two ventricles. The ventricles pump blood to your body’s organs and tissues, and the atria receive blood from your body as it circulates back from the rest of your body.

CHF develops when your ventricles can’t pump enough blood volume to the body. Eventually, blood and other fluids can back up inside your:

Lungs
Abdomen
Liver
Lower body
CHF can be life-threatening. If you suspect you or someone near you has CHF, seek immediate medical treatment.

TYPES OF CHF
Results of these tests help doctors determine the cause of your signs and symptoms and develop a program to treat your heart. To determine the most appropriate treatment for your condition, doctors may classify heart failure using two systems:

New York Heart Association classification. This symptom-based scale classifies heart failure in four categories. In Class I heart failure, you don’t have any symptoms. In Class II heart failure, you can perform everyday activities without difficulty but become winded or fatigued when you exert yourself. With Class III, you’ll have trouble completing everyday activities, and Class IV is the most severe, and you’re short of breath even at rest.

American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. This stage-based classification system uses letters A to D. The system includes a category for people who are at risk of developing heart failure.

For example, a person who has several risk factors for heart failure but no signs or symptoms of heart failure is Stage A. A person who has heart disease but no signs or symptoms of heart failure is Stage B. Someone who has heart disease and is experiencing or has experienced signs or symptoms of heart failure is Stage C. A person with advanced heart failure requiring specialized treatments is Stage D.

Doctors use this classification system to identify your risk factors and begin early, more aggressive treatment to help prevent or delay heart failure.

These scoring systems are not independent of each other. Your doctor often will use them together to help decide your most appropriate treatment options. Ask your doctor about your score if you’re interested in determining the severity of your heart failure. Your doctor can help you interpret your score and plan your treatment based on your condition.

CAUSES OF CHF

RISK FACTORS
                                                    RISK FACTORS       CHF may result from other health conditions that directly affect your cardiovascular system. This is why it’s important to get annual checkups to lower your risk for heart health problems, including high blood pressure (hypertension), coronary artery disease, and valve conditions
  • HYPERTENSION
    When your blood pressure is higher than normal, it may lead to CHF. Hypertension has many different causes. Among them is the narrowing of your arteries, which makes it harder for your blood to flow through them.
  • CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
    Cholesterol and other types of fatty substances can block the coronary arteries, which are the small arteries that supply blood to the heart. This causes the arteries to become narrow. Narrower coronary arteries restrict your blood flow and can lead to damage in your arteries.
  • VALVE CONDITIONS
    Heart valves regulate blood flow through your heart by opening and closing to let blood in and out of the chambers. Valves that don’t open and close correctly may force your ventricles to work harder to pump blood. This can be a result of a heart infection or defect.
  • OTHER CONDITIONS
    While heart-related diseases can lead to CHF, there are other seemingly unrelated conditions that may increase your risk, too. These include diabetes, thyroid disease, and obesity. Severe infections and allergic reactions may also contribute to CHF.

SYMPTOMS OF CHF

symptoms of chd
                                                     symptoms of CHD

In the early stages of CHF, you most likely won’t notice any changes in your health. If your condition progresses, you’ll experience gradual changes in your body.

  • Symptoms you may notice first Symptoms that indicate your condition has worsened
  • Symptoms that indicate a severe heart condition
  • fatigue
  • irregular heartbeat
  • chest pain that radiates through the upper body
  • swelling in your ankles, feet, and legs
  • a cough that develops from congested lungs
  • rapid breathing
  • weight gain
  • wheezing skin that appears blue, which is due to lack of oxygen in your lungs
  • increased need to urinate, especially at night
  • shortness of breath, which may indicate pulmonary edema
  • fainting
  • Chest pain that radiates through the upper body can also be a sign of a heart attack. If you experience this or any other symptoms that may point to a severe heart condition, seek immediate medical attention.

SYMPTOMS OF HEART FAILURE IN CHILDREEN 
It can be difficult to recognize heart failure in infants and young children. Symptoms may include:

  • Poor feeding
  • Excessive sweating
  • Difficulty breathing
  • These symptoms can easily be misunderstood as colic or a respiratory infection. Poor growth and low blood pressure can also be signs of heart failure in children. In some cases, you may be able to feel a resting baby’s rapid heart rate through the chest wall.

DIAGNOSIS OF CHD

X- RAYS
X- RAYS

After reporting symptoms to doctor, they may refer you to a heart specialist, or cardiologist.

Cardiologist will perform a physical exam, which will involve listening to your heart with a stethoscope to detect abnormal heart rhythms. To confirm an initial diagnosis, cardiologist might order certain diagnostic tests to examine your heart’s valves, blood vessels, and chambers.

There are a variety of tests used to diagnose heart conditions. Because these tests measure different things, doctor may recommend a few to get a full picture of your current condition.

  • ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) records heart’s rhythm. Abnormalities in your heart’s rhythm, such as a rapid heartbeat or irregular rhythm, could suggest that the walls of your heart’s chamber are thicker than normal. That could be a warning sign for a heart attack.
  • ECHOCARDIOGRAM
    An echocardiogram uses sound waves to record the heart’s structure and motion. The test can determine if you already have poor blood flow, muscle damage, or a heart muscle that doesn’t contract normally.
  • MRI
    An MRI takes pictures of your heart. With both still and moving pictures, this allows doctor to see if there’s damage to you heart.
  • STRESS TEST
    Stress tests show how well your heart performs under different levels of stress. Making your heart work harder makes it easier for doctor to diagnose problems.
  • BLOOD TEST
    Blood tests can check for abnormal blood cells and infections. They can also check the level of BNP, a hormone that rises with heart failure.
  • CARDIAC CATHETERISATION
    Cardiac catheterization can show blockages of the coronary arteries. Doctor will insert a small tube into blood vessel and thread it from your upper thigh (groin area), arm, or wrist.
  • CORONARY ANGIOGRAM. In this test, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel at your groin or in your arm and guided through the aorta into your coronary arteries. A dye injected through the catheter makes the arteries supplying your heart visible on an X-ray, helping doctors spot blockages.

Myocardial biopsy. In this test, your doctor inserts a small, flexible biopsy cord into a vein in your neck or groin, and small pieces of the heart muscle are taken. This test may be performed to diagnose certain types of heart muscle diseases that cause heart failure.

MEDICATIONS
Doctors usually treat heart failure with a combination of medications. Depending on your symptoms, you might take one or more medications, including:

ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITOR- These drugs help people with systolic heart failure live longer and feel better. ACE inhibitors are a type of vasodilator, a drug that widens blood vessels to lower blood pressure, improve blood flow and decrease the workload on the heart. Examples include enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Zestril) and captopril (Capoten).

ANGIOTENSIN 2 RECEPTOR BLOCKER –These drugs, which include losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), have many of the same benefits as ACE inhibitors. They may be an alternative for people who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors.

BETA BLOCKERS- This class of drugs not only slows your heart rate and reduces blood pressure but also limits or reverses some of the damage to your heart if you have systolic heart failure. Examples include carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Lopressor) and bisoprolol (Zebeta).

These medicines reduce the risk of some abnormal heart rhythms and lessen your chance of dying unexpectedly. Beta blockers may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, improve heart function, and help you live longer.

DIURETICS- Often called water pills, diuretics make you urinate more frequently and keep fluid from collecting in your body. Diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), also decrease fluid in your lungs so you can breathe more easily.

Because diuretics make your body lose potassium and magnesium, Doctor may also prescribe supplements of these minerals. If you’re taking a diuretic, Doctor will likely monitor levels of potassium and magnesium in your blood through regular blood tests.

ALDOSTERON ANTAGONIST- These drugs include spironolactone (Aldactone) and eplerenone (Inspra). These are potassium-sparing diuretics, which also have additional properties that may help people with severe systolic heart failure live longer.

Unlike some other diuretics, spironolactone and eplerenone can raise the level of potassium in your blood to dangerous levels, so talk to your doctor if increased potassium is a concern, and learn if you need to modify your intake of food that’s high in potassium.

INOTROPES- These are intravenous medications used in people with severe heart failure in the hospital to improve heart pumping function and maintain blood pressure.

DIGOXIN (Lanoxin) – This drug, also referred to as digitalis, increases the strength of your heart muscle contractions. It also tends to slow the heartbeat. Digoxin reduces heart failure symptoms in systolic heart failure. It may be more likely to be given to someone with a heart rhythm problem, such as atrial fibrillation.

You may need to take two or more medications to treat heart failure. Your doctor may prescribe other heart medications as well — such as nitrates for chest pain, a statin to lower cholesterol or blood-thinning medications to help prevent blood clots — along with heart failure medications. Your doctor may need to adjust your doses frequently, especially when you’ve just started a new medication or when your condition is worsening.

You may be hospitalized if you have a flare-up of heart failure symptoms. While in the hospital, you may receive additional medications to help your heart pump better and relieve your symptoms. You may also receive supplemental oxygen through a mask or small tubes placed in your nose. If you have severe heart failure, you may need to use supplemental oxygen long term.

SURGERY AND MEDICAL DEVICE
In some cases, doctors recommend surgery to treat the underlying problem that led to heart failure. Some treatments being studied and used in certain people include:

CORONARY BYPASS SURGERY- If severely blocked arteries are contributing to your heart failure, doctor may recommend coronary artery bypass surgery. In this procedure, blood vessels from your leg, arm or chest bypass a blocked artery in your heart to allow blood to flow through your heart more freely.

HEART VALVE REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT. If a faulty heart valve causes your heart failure, your doctor may recommend repairing or replacing the valve. The surgeon can modify the original valve to eliminate backward blood flow. Surgeons can also repair the valve by reconnecting valve leaflets or by removing excess valve tissue so that the leaflets can close tightly. Sometimes repairing the valve includes tightening or replacing the ring around the valve (annuloplasty).

Valve replacement is done when valve repair isn’t possible. In valve replacement surgery, the damaged valve is replaced by an artificial (prosthetic) valve.

Certain types of heart valve repair or replacement can now be done without open heart surgery, using either minimally invasive surgery or cardiac catheterization techniques.

IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR (ICDs)-

 

ICD
                  ICD

An ICD is a device similar to a pacemaker. It’s implanted under the skin in your chest with wires leading through your veins and into your heart.

The ICD monitors the heart rhythm. If the heart starts beating at a dangerous rhythm, or if your heart stops, the ICD tries to pace your heart or shock it back into normal rhythm. An ICD can also function as a pacemaker and speed your heart up if it is going too slow.

SYNCHRONISATION

CARDIAC RESYNCRHRONISATION THERAPY(CRT)- or biventricular pacing. A biventricular pacemaker sends timed electrical impulses to both of the heart’s lower chambers (the left and right ventricles) so that they pump in a more efficient, coordinated manner.

Many people with heart failure have problems with their heart’s electrical system that cause their already-weak heart muscle to beat in an uncoordinated fashion. This inefficient muscle contraction may cause heart failure to worsen. Often a biventricular pacemaker is combined with an ICD for people with heart failure.

VENTRICULAR ASSIST DEVICE (VADs)- A VAD, also known as a mechanical circulatory support device, is an implantable mechanical pump that helps pump blood from the lower chambers of your heart (the ventricles) to the rest of your body. A VAD is implanted into the abdomen or chest and attached to a weakened heart to help it pump blood to the rest of your body.

Doctors first used heart pumps to help keep heart transplant candidates alive while they waited for a donor heart. VADs may also be used as an alternative to transplantation. Implanted heart pumps can enhance the quality of life of some people with severe heart failure who aren’t eligible for or able to undergo heart transplantation or are waiting for a new heart.

HEART TRANSPLANT. Some people have such severe heart failure that surgery or medications don’t help. They may need to have their diseased heart replaced with a healthy donor heart.

Heart transplants can improve the survival and quality of life of some people with severe heart failure. However, candidates for transplantation often have to wait a long time before a suitable donor heart is found. Some transplant candidates improve during this waiting period through drug treatment or device therapy and can be removed from the transplant waiting list.A heart transplant isn’t the right treatment for everyone.

PALLIATIVE CARE AND END OF-LIFE CARE
Doctor may recommend including palliative care in your treatment plan. Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on easing your symptoms and improving your quality of life. Anyone who has a serious or life-threatening illness can benefit from palliative care, either to treat symptoms of the disease, such as pain or shortness of breath, or to ease the side effects of treatment, such as fatigue or nausea.

It’s possible that your heart failure may worsen to the point where medications are no longer working and a heart transplant or device isn’t an option. If this occurs, you may need to enter hospice care. Hospice care provides a special course of treatment to terminally ill people.

HOSPICE CARE ows family and friends — with the aid of nurses, social workers and trained volunteers — to care for and comfort a loved one at home or in hospice residences. Hospice care provides emotional, psychological, social and spiritual support for people who are ill and those closest to them.

Although most people under hospice care remain in their own homes, the program is available anywhere — including nursing homes and assisted living centers. For people who stay in a hospital, specialists in end-of-life care can provide comfort, compassionate care and dignity.

If you have an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), one important consideration to discuss with your family and doctors is turning off the defibrillator so that it can’t deliver shocks to make your heart continue beating.

LIFE STYLE AND HOME REMEDIES

Making lifestyle changes can often help relieve signs and symptoms of heart failure and prevent the disease from worsening. These changes may be among the most important and beneficial you can make. Lifestyle changes your doctor may recommend include:
Stop smoking. Smoking damages your blood vessels, raises blood pressure, reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood and makes your heart beat faster.If you smoke, ask your doctor to recommend a program to help you quit. You can’t be considered for a heart transplant if you continue to smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke, too.
Discuss weight monitoring with your doctor. Discuss with doctor how often you should weigh yourself. Ask doctor how much weight gain you should notify him or her about. Weight gain may mean that you’re retaining fluids and need a change in your treatment plan.
Check your legs, ankles and feet for swelling daily. Check for any changes in swelling in your legs, ankles or feet daily. Check with your doctor if the swelling worsens.
Eat a healthy diet. Aim to eat a diet that includes fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and lean proteins.
Restrict sodium in diet. Too much sodium contributes to water retention, which makes your heart work harder and causes shortness of breath and swollen legs, ankles and feet.
Check with doctor for the sodium restriction recommended for you. Keep in mind that salt is already added to prepared foods, and be careful when using salt substitutes.
Maintain a healthy weight. If you’re overweight, your dietitian will help you work toward your ideal weight. Even losing a small amount of weight can help.
Consider getting vaccinations. If you have heart failure, you may want to get influenza and pneumonia vaccinations.
Limit saturated or ‘trans’ fats in your diet. In addition to avoiding high-sodium foods, limit the amount of saturated fat and trans fat — also called trans-fatty acids — in your diet. These potentially harmful dietary fats increase your risk of heart disease.
Limit alcohol and fluids. Doctor may recommend that you don’t drink alcohol if you have heart failure, since it can interact with your medication, weaken your heart muscle and increase your risk of abnormal heart rhythms.
If you have severe heart failure, doctor may also suggest you limit the amount of fluids you drink.

Reduce stress. When you’re anxious or upset, your heart beats faster, you breathe more heavily and your blood pressure often goes up. This can make heart failure worse, since your heart is already having trouble meeting the body’s demands.

Find ways to reduce stress in your life. To give your heart a rest, try napping or putting your feet up when possible. Spend time with friends and family to be social and help keep stress at bay.

Sleep easy. If you’re having shortness of breath, especially at night, sleep with your head propped up using a pillow or a wedge. If you snore or have had other sleep problems, make sure you get tested for sleep apnea.

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CARDIAC ARREST

CARDIAC ARREST

Cardiac-Arrest

Cardiac arrest is a serious heart condition. The word arrest means to stop or bring to a halt. In cardiac arrest, the heart ceases to beat. It’s also known as sudden cardiac death.

Your heartbeat is controlled by electrical impulses. When these impulses change pattern, the heartbeat becomes irregular. This is also known as an arrhythmia. Some arrhythmias are slow, others are rapid. Cardiac arrest occurs when the rhythm of the heart stops.

Cardiac arrest is an extremely serious health issue. The Institute of Medicine reports that every year, more than half a million people experience cardiac arrest in the United States. The condition can cause death or disability. If someone is experiencing symptoms of cardiac arrest, seek emergency health assistance immediately. It can be fatal. Immediate response and treatment can save a life.

CLASSIFICATION
Clinicians classify cardiac arrest into “shockable” versus “non–shockable”, as determined by the ECG rhythm. This refers to whether a particular class of cardiac dysrhythmia is treatable using defibrillation. The two “shockable” rhythms are ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia while the two “non–shockable” rhythms are asystole and pulseless electrical activity.

CAUSES OF CARDIAC ARREST
A number of factors can cause sudden cardiac arrest. Two of the most common are ventricular and atrial fibrillation.

VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
Your heart has four chambers. The two lower chambers are the ventricles. In ventricular fibrillation, these chambers quiver out of control. This causes the heart’s rhythm to change dramatically. The ventricles begin to pump inefficiently, which severely decreases the amount of blood pumped through the body. In some cases, the circulation of blood stops completely. This may lead to sudden cardiac death.

The most frequent cause of cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation.

ATRIAL FIBRILATION
The heart can also stop beating efficiently after an arrhythmia in the upper chambers. These chambers are known as the atria.

Atrial fibrillation begins when the sinoatrial (SA) node doesn’t send out the correct electrical impulses. Your SA node is located in the right atrium. It regulates how quickly the heart pumps blood. When the electrical impulse goes into atrial fibrillation, the ventricles can’t pump blood out to the body efficiently.

RISK FOR CARDIAC ARREST

Certain heart conditions and health factors can increase your risk of cardiac arrest.

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
This type of heart disease begins in the coronary arteries. These arteries supply the heart muscle itself. When they become blocked, your heart does not receive blood. It may stop working properly.

LARGE HEART
Having an abnormally large heart places you at increased risk for cardiac arrest. A large heart may not beat correctly. The muscle may also be more prone to damage.

IRREGULAR HEART BEAT
Valve disease can make heart valves leaky or narrower. This means blood circulating through the heart either overloads the chambers with blood or does not fill them to capacity. The chambers may become weakened or enlarged.

CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
Some people are born with heart damage. This is known as a congenital heart problem. Sudden cardiac arrest may occur in children who were born with a serious heart problem.

ELECTRICAL IMPULSE PROBLEMS
Problems with your heart’s electrical system can increase your risk of sudden cardiac death. These problems are known as primary heart rhythm abnormalities.

Other risk factors for cardiac arrest include:

  • Smoking
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • High blood pressure
  • Obesity
  • Family history of heart disease
  • History of a previous heart attack
  • Age over 45 for men, or over 55 for women
  • Male gender
  • Substance abuse
  • Low potassium or magnesium

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Early symptoms of cardiac arrest are often warning signs. Getting treatment before your heart stops could save your life.

If you are in cardiac arrest, you may:

  • Become dizzy
  • Be short of breath
  • Feel fatigued or weak
  • Vomit
  • Experience heart palpitations                                                                                                                                          Immediate EMERGENCY care is needed if someone are with experiences these symptoms
  • Chest pain
  • No pulse
  • Not breathing or difficulty breathing
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Collapse
  • Cardiac arrest may not have symptoms before it occurs. If you do have symptoms that persist, seek prompt medical care.

DIAGNOSIS

difference-between-Heart-attack-and-Cardiac-arrest
difference-between-Heart-attack-and-Cardiac-arrest

During a cardiac event that causes your heart to stop beating efficiently, it’s vital to seek medical attention immediately. Medical treatment will focus on getting blood flowing back to your body. Doctor will most likely perform a test called an electrocardiogram to identify the type of abnormal rhythm your heart is experiencing. To treat the condition, doctor will likely use a defibrillator to shock your heart. An electric shock can often return the heart to a normal rhythm.

Other tests can also be used after you have experienced a cardiac event:

Blood tests can be used to look for signs of a heart attack. They can also measure potassium and magnesium levels.
Chest X-ray can look for other signs of disease in the heart.

TREATING THE CARDIAC ARREST

defibrillator
Defibrillator

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one form of emergency treatment for cardiac arrest. Defibrillation is another. These treatments get your heart beating again once it has stopped.

Medication can lower high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Surgery can repair damaged blood vessels or heart valves. It can also bypass or remove blockages in the arteries.
Exercise may improve cardiovascular fitness.
Dietary changes can help you lower cholesterol.

LONG TERM OUTLOOK OF CARDIAC ARREST
Cardiac arrest can be fatal. However, prompt treatment increases your odds of survival. Treatment is most effective within a few minutes of the arrest.

If you have experienced cardiac arrest, it’s important to understand the cause. Your long-term outlook will depend on the reason you experienced cardiac arrest. Your doctor can talk to you about treatment options to help protect your heart and prevent cardiac arrest from happening again.

PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

INDICATIONS
Cardiac rehabilitation should be offered to all cardiac patients who would benefit. CR is mainly prescribed to patients with ischemic heart disease, with myocardial infarction, after coronary angioplasty, after coronaro-aortic by-pass graft surgery and to patients with chronic heart failure. CR begins as soon as possible in intensive care units, only if the patient is in stable medical condition. Intensity of rehabilitation depends on patient´s condition and complications in acute phase of disease.

Cardiac rehabilitation typically comprises of four phases. The term phase is used to describe the varying time frames following a cardiac event. The secondary prevention component of CR requires delivery of exercise training, education and counseling, risk factor intervention and follow up.

Appropriate referral pathways should be set up so appropriate patients can be identified and invited to attend. Referrals should be invited by cardiologist/physician, cardiothoracic surgeon, cardiac team, cardic rehab co-ordinator, G.P., CCU nurses or members of the MDT. All referrals should include the following;

Patients name, age, address and contact number
Type of cardiac event and date of event
Cardiac history, complications and meds
Reason for referral
Referring persons name and contact number, date of request
Clinically relevant information – results of exercise stress test, echo, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose profile

PHASES OF CARDIAC REHABILATION

PHASE 1 : IN HOSPITAL PATIENT PERIOD
2-5 days

Member of Cardiac Rehab team (CRT) should visit the patient to;

Give support and information to them and their families re: heart disease
Assist the patient to identify personal CV risk factors
Discuss lifestyle modifications of personal risk factors and help provide an individual plan to support these lifestyle changes
Gain support from family members to assist the patient in maintaining the necessary progress
Plan a personal discharge activity programme and encourage the patient to adhere to this and commence daily walks
Inform patients regarding phase II and phase III programs if available and encourage their attendance
At this stage emphasis is on counteracting the negative effects of a cardiac event not promoting training adaptations . Activity levels should be progressed using a staged approach which should be based on the patient’s medical condition. Patient should be closely monitored for any signs of cardiac decompensation.

Educational sessions should be commenced providing information re:

  • The cardiac event
  • Psychological reactions to the event
  • Cardiac pain/symptom management
  • Correction of cardiac misconceptions
  • The use of educational materials such as the heart manual and leaflets from the Irish Heart Foundation should be considered.

PHASE II: POST DISCHARGE PERIOD
GOALS :

Reinforce cardiac risk factor modification
Provide education and support to patient and family
Promote continuing adherence to lifestyle recommendations.

PHASE III: CARDIAC REHABILITATION AND SECONDARY PREVENTION
Structured exercise training with continual educational and psychological support and advice on risk factors
Should take a menu based approach and be individually tailored.
Exercise class will consist of warm up, exercise class, cool down – may also include resistance training with active recovery stations where appropriate.

Patient shouldn’t exercise if they are generally unwell, symptomatic or clinically unstable on arrival;

  • Fever/acute systemic illness
  • Unresolved/unstable angina
  • Resting BP systolic >200mmHg and diastolic > 110mmHg
  • Significant drop in BP
  • Symptomatic hypotension
  • Resting/uncontrolled tachycardia (>100bpm)
  • Uncontrolled atrial or ventricular arrhythmias
  • New/recurrent symptoms of breathlessness, lethargy, palpitations, dizziness
  • Unstable heart failure
  • Unstable/uncontrolled diabetes

NEED TO CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING ;

Local written policy clearly displayed for the management of emergency situations
Rapid access to emergency team in hospital or via ambulance
Regular checking and maintenance of all equipment
Drinking water and glucose supplements available as required
Access to and from venue, emergency exits, toilets and changing areas, lighting, surface and room space checked to ensure they’re appropriate
Enough space for patient traffic and safe placement of equipment
Adequate temperature and ventilation

MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY

INTRODUCTION-
Your medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the knee ligament on the medial (inner) side of your knee connecting the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial condyle. It is one of four major knee ligaments that help to stabilise the knee joint. It is a flat band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed of long, stringy collagen molecules.

The main function of the MCL is to resist valgus force, which occurs if the tibia/foot is forced outwards in relation to the knee.

ANATOMY OF MCL
ANATOMY OF MCL

CAUSES OF MCL INJURY
The MCL is injured when the (valgus) force is too great for the ligament to resist and the ligament is overstretched. This can occur through a sharp change in direction, twisting the knee whilst the foot is fixed, landing wrong from a jump, or the most common a blunt force hit to the knee, such as in football tackle. The incident usually needs to happen at speed. Muscle weakness or incoordination predispose you to a ligament sprain or tear.

SEVERITY OF MCL INJURY
The severity and symptoms of a knee ligament sprain depend on the degree of stretching or tearing of the knee ligament. You may notice an audible snap or tearing sound at the time of your ligment injury.

In a mild Grade I MCL sprain, the knee ligament has a slight stretch, but they don’t actually tear. Although the knee joint may not hurt or swell very much, a mild ligament sprain can increase the risk of a repeat injury.

With a moderate Grade II MCL sprain, the knee ligament tears partially. Knee swelling and bruising are common, and use of the knee joint is usually painful and difficult. You may have some complaints of instability or a feeling of the knee giving way.

With a severe Grade III MCL sprain, the ligament tears completely, causing swelling and sometimes bleeding under the skin. As a result, the joint is unstable and can be difficult to bear weight. You may have a feeling of the knee giving way. Often there will be no pain or severe pain that subsides quickly following a grade 3 tear as all of the pain fibres are torn at the time of injury. With these more severe tears, other structures are at risk of injury including the meniscus and/or ACL.

DIAGNOSIS

On examination, your physiotherapist will look for signs of ligament injury. There will be tenderness over the ligament site, possible swelling and pain with stress tests. MRI may also be used to diagnose a knee ligament injury and look at other surrounding structures for combination injuries.

RECOVERY TIME
Treatment of an MCL injury varies depending on its severity and whether there are other combination injuries.

medial-collateral-ligament-grading-injury
medial-collateral-ligament-grading-injury

Grade I sprains usually heal within a few weeks. Maximal ligament strength will occur after six weeks when the collagen fibres have matured. Resting from painful activity, icing the injury, and some anti-inflammatory medications are useful. Physiotherapy will help to hasten the healing process via electrical modalities, massage, strengthening and joint exercises to guide the direction that the ligament fibres heal. This helps to prevent a future tear.

When a Grade II sprain occurs, use of a weight-bearing brace or some supportive taping is common in early treatment. This helps to ease the pain and avoid stretching of the healing ligament. After a grade II injury, you can usually return to activity once the joint is stable and you are no longer having pain. This may take up to six weeks. Physiotherapy helps to hasten the healing process via electrical modalities, massage, strengthening and joint exercises to guide the direction that the ligament fibres heal. This helps to prevent a future tear and quickly return you to your pre-injury status.

When a Grade III injury occurs, you usually wear a hinged knee brace, locked into extension, and use crutches for 1-2 weeks to protect the injury from weight-bearing stresses. As pain resolves the brace can be unlocked to allow movement as tolerated. The aim is to allow for ligament healing and gradually return to normal activities. These injuries are most successfully treated via physiotherapy and may not return to their full level of activity for 3 to 4 months. All Grade III injuries should be rehabilitated under the guidance of your physiotherapist and knee specialist.

PHYSIOTHERAPYPHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT
Depending on the grade of injury you can start to feel better within days to just a few weeks of the injury. Your physiotherapy treatment will aim to:

1.Reduce pain and inflammation.
2.Normalise joint range of motion.
3.Strengthen your knee: esp quadriceps (esp VMO) and hamstrings.
4.Strengthen your lower limb: calves, hip and pelvis muscles.
5.Improve patellofemoral (knee cap) alignment
6.Normalise your muscle lengths
7.Improve your proprioception, agility and balance
8.Improve your technique and function eg walking, running, squatting, hopping and landing.
9.Guide return to sport activities and exercises
10.Minimise your chance of re-injury.

AIMS OF REHABILITATION-
The following examples are for information purposes only. We recommend seeking professional advice before attempting any rehabilitation. The aim of rehabilitation is to reduce pain and swelling, restore full mobility, improve strength and stability before a gradual return to full training.

GRADE 1 MCL INJURY
For a grade 1 MCL injury there may be mild tenderness on the inside of the knee over the ligament and usually no swelling. The rehabilitation guidelines for a mild medial ligament sprain can be split into 4 phases:

Phase 1: immediately following injury

Duration 1 week. Aims to reduce swelling if there is any, ensure the knee can be straightened fully and bent to more than 90 degrees and begin pain free strengthening exercises.

Rest from activities that cause pain. As pain allows, aim to walk normally without support or pain. Apply cold therapy and a compression support to limit any swelling. Apply ice for 15 minutes every 2 hours for the first day. The frequency can be gradually reduced to 3 times a day over the next few days. Do not apply ice directly to the skin as it may burn.

Sports massage techniques can usually be applied from day 2, specifically to the ligament. Ultrasound can also be applied to the ligament area. Maintain aerobic fitness with cycling. Apply cold therapy after each strengthening and stretching session.

Pain free stretching exercises for quadriceps and hamstring muscles as well as flexion and extension mobility exercises. Static strengthening exercises can begin as soon as pain allows. Isometric quadriceps exercises, calf raises with both legs and resistance band exercises for the hamstrings, hip abductors and hip extension but not for adduction as this will stress the medial ligament.

Phase 2: after 1 week
Duration 1 week. Aims – Eliminate any swelling completely, regain full range of movement, continue with strengthening exercises and return to slow jogging.

Rest from painful activities, however the athlete may be able to jog slowly as long as it is not painful. Apply cold therapy following exercise or rehabilitation exercises. Continue with stretching and strengthening exercises from phase 1.

Introduce dynamic strengthening exercises such as knee extension, knee flexion, half squats, step ups, single leg calf raise, bridging and leg press are suitable exercises if pain allows.

Cross friction massage to the ligament can be performed on alternate days. Maintain aerobic fitness with cycling, stepping machine and gentle jogging but no sudden changes of direction.

Phase 3: after 2 weeks
Duration 2 weeks. Aims to maintain full range of motion, equal strength of both legs, return to running and some sports specific training.

Continue to apply cold therapy after training sessions. Continue with sports massage techniques every 3 days. Continue with stretching exercises.

Build on dynamic strengthening exercises such as leg extension and leg curls exercises as well as squats to horizontal and lunges. Increase the intensity, weight lifted and number of repetitions. Aim for between 10 and 20 reps. Increase until the strength is equal in both legs.

In addition to straight running, start to include sideways and backwards running, agility drills and plyometric exercises. Increase speed to sprinting and changing direction drills.

Phase 4: after 4 weeks
Duration 3 to 6 weeks. Aims to return to full sports specific training and competition.

Sports massage for surrounding muscles on as weekly basis. Continue with strength training as above but start to include hopping and bounding exercises. The athlete should now be ready to gradually return to full sports specific training and then competition.

A knee support or a strapping / taping techniques may provide extra support on return to full training, however do not become reliant on this. It will weaken the joint. Use initially for confidence building.

GRADE 2 OR 3 SPRAIN-
For a grade 2+ and particularly 3 sprain it is important that the ends of the ligament are protected and left to heal without continually being disrupted. The rehabilitation guidelines for a grade 2+ or 3 medial ligament sprain (more severe) can be split into 4 phases:

Phase 1: immediately following injury

Duration 4 weeks. Aims to control swelling, maintain ability to straighten the leg bend the knee to more than 90 degrees, begin strengthening exercises.

Rest from all painful activities. Use crutches if necessary, non weight bearing to start with, then partial weight bearing from week 2 and by end of week 4 aim to be walking normally.

Wear a hinged or stabilised knee brace to protect the medial ligament. Apply cold therapy and compression. Apply ice / cold therapy for 15 minutes every 2 hours for the first 2 days and gradually reduce the frequency to 3 times a day over the next week. Pain free stretches for the hamstrings, quads, groin and calf muscles in particular. Mobility exercises should be done in the knee brace.

Sports massage (gentle cross frictions) may be possible from day 2 but allow a week for more severe injuries. As pain allows, static quads and hamstring exercises, double leg calf raises, hip abduction and extension. Knee extension mobility should only be to 30 degrees though. Maintain aerobic fitness on stationary cycle as soon as pain allows.

Phase 2: Following week 4
Duration 2 weeks. Aims to eliminate swelling, full weight bearing on the injured knee, full range of motion, injured leg almost as strong as the good one.

Continue with cold therapy and compression to eliminate swelling following exercises. Remove the knee brace at this stage. A simple stablized knee support is more suitable at this stage to apply compression to the knee. A therapist will continue with ultrasound and massage.

Range of motion exercises should continue along with isometric quadriceps exercises. Mini squats, lunges, double leg press, hamstring curls, step ups, bridges, hip abduction, hip extension and single leg calf raises can begin or be continued. It may be possible to begin to swim (not breaststroke!) or use stepper for aerobic fitness.

Phase 3: after week 6
Duration 4 weeks. Aims to regain full range of motion, strength, return to light jogging and by week 10 from injury, return to sports specific exercises.

Continue with cold therapy following training sessions. Wear a brace or support as required. Sports massage techniques to the ligament 2 to 3 times a weeks. Strengthening exercises as above increasing intensity and moving double leg exercises to single.

After week 6, no sooner, begin to run if comfortable, no sudden changes of direction though.

After week 8 begin to run sideways and backwards so by week 10 the athlete is able to begin to change direction at speed. For footballers, kicking may now be possible.

When confident enough plyometric drills, hopping, box jumps and agility drills can begin.

Phase 4: after week 10
Duration 2 to 4 weeks. Aims to return to full sports specific training and competition without a brace for support, full strength and mobility.

Gradually bring into training more and more sports specific drills, changing direction and plyometric, hopping and bounding exercises. Normal sports specific training can begin.

KNEE LIGAMENT SURGERY
Most MCL injuries resolve well with conservative management, however, surgery may be considered if there is significant ligament disruption eg Grade III. Surgery may also be required if the are significant combination injuries involving the ACL and/or meniscus. In these cases a knee specialist will guide the need for surgery.

Risks of surgery include infection, persistent instability and pain, stiffness, and difficulty returning to your previous level of activity. The good news is that better than 90% of patients have no complications post-surgery.

POST SURGICAL REHABILITATION
Post-operative knee rehabilitation is one of the most important aspects of knee surgery. The most successful and quickest outcomes result from the guidance and supervision of an experienced sports physiotherapist.

Your physiotherapy rehabilitation following knee surgery focuses on restoring full knee motion, strength, power and endurance. You’ll also require balance, proprioception and agility retraining that is individualised towards your specific sporting or functional needs.

As mentioned earlier your sports physiotherapist is an expert in this field. We suggest you contact them for the best advice in your circumstances.

Your physiotherapist will guide your return to sport. It is highly variable and depends upon on your specific knee ligament injury and the demands of your demands of your sports.

PRVENTION OF RECURRENCE
A knee strengthening, agility and proprioceptive training program is the best way to reduce your chance of a knee ligament sprain. Premature return to high-risk activities such as sport are best discussed with your physiotherapist or surgeon.

FACIAL NERVE PALSY

 INTRODUCTION

ANATOMY
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII. It emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The nerves typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen. It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve).

The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia.

The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis.

STRUCTURE
The path of the facial nerve can be divided into six segments.

1. Iintracranial (cisternal) segment
2. Meatal segment (brainstem to internal auditory canal)
3. Labyrinthine segment (internal auditory canal to geniculate ganglion)
4. Tympanic segment (from geniculate ganglion to pyramidal eminence)
5. Mastoid segment (from pyramidal eminence to stylomastoid foramen)
6. Extratemporal segment (from stylomastoid foramen to post parotid branches)

1.The motor part of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons while the sensory and parasympathetic parts of the facial nerve arise from the intermediate nerve.

2.From the brain stem, the motor and sensory parts of the facial nerve join together and traverse the posterior cranial fossa before entering the petrous temporal bone via the internal auditory meatus. Upon exiting the internal auditory meatus, the nerve then runs a tortuous course through the facial canal, which is divided into the labyrinthine, tympanic, and mastoid segments.

3.The labyrinthine segment is very short, and ends where the facial nerve forms a bend known as the geniculum of the facial nerve (“genu” meaning knee), which contains the geniculate ganglion for sensory nerve bodies. The first branch of the facial nerve, the greater superficial petrosal nerve, arises here from the geniculate ganglion. The greater petrosal nerve runs through the pterygoid canal and synapses at the pterygopalatine ganglion. Post synaptic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve innervate the lacrimal gland.

4.In the tympanic segment, the facial nerve runs through the tympanic cavity, medial to the incus.

5The pyramidal eminence is the second bend in the facial nerve, where the nerve runs downward as the mastoid segment. In the temporal part of the facial canal, the nerve gives rise to the stapedius and chorda tympani. The chorda tympani supplies taste fibers to the anterior two thirds of the tongue, and also synapses with the submandibular ganglion. Postsynaptic fibers from the submandibular ganglion supply the sublingual and submandibular glands.

6.Upon emerging from the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve gives rise to the posterior auricular branch. The facial nerve then passes through the parotid gland, which it does not innervate, to form the parotid plexus, which splits into five branches innervating the muscles of facial expression (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical).

INTRACRANIAL BRANCH
1.Greater petrosal nerve – It arises at the geniculate ganglion and provides parasympathetic innervation to several glands, including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic innervation to the sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus and nasal cavity. This nerve also includes taste fibers for palate via lesser palatine nerve and greater palatine nerve.

2.Communicating branch to the otic ganglion – It arises at the geniculate ganglion and joins the lesser petrosal nerve to reach the otic ganglion.

3..Nerve to stapedius – provides motor innervation for stapedius muscle in middle ear

4.Chorda tympani
Parasympathetic innervation to submandibular gland
Parasympathetic innervation to sublingual gland
Special sensory taste fibers for the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.

EXTRACRANIAL BRANCHES
Distal to stylomastoid foramen, the following nerves branch off the facial nerve:

Posterior auricular nerve – controls movements of some of the scalp muscles around the ear
Branch to Posterior belly of Digastric muscle as well as the Stylohyoid muscle
Five major facial branches (in parotid gland) – from top to bottom:

 

EXRACRANIAL BRANCH
EXRACRANIAL BRANCH

1.Temporal branch
2.Zygomatic branch
3.Buccal branch
4.Marginal mandibular branch
5.Cervical branch

Intra operatively the facial nerve is recognized at 3 constant landmarks:

1.At the tip of tragal cartilage where the nerve is 1cm deep and inferior
2.At the posterior belly of digastric by tracing this backwards to the tympanic plate the nerve can be found between these two structures
3.By locating the posterior facial vein at the inferior aspect of the gland where the marginal branch would be seen crossing it.
4.lateral semicircular canal
5.Foot of incus

NUCLEUS
The cell bodies for the facial nerve are grouped in anatomical areas called nuclei or ganglia. The cell bodies for the afferent nerves are found in

the geniculate ganglion for taste sensation. The cell bodies for muscular efferent nerves are found in the facial motor nucleus whereas the cell

bodies for the parasympathetic efferent nerves are found in the superior salivatory nucleus.

DEVELOPMENT
The facial nerve is developmentally derived from the second pharyngeal arch, or branchial arch. The second arch is called the hyoid arch because it contributes to the formation of the lesser horn and upper body of the hyoid bone (the rest of the hyoid is formed by the third arch). The facial nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the muscles formed by the second pharyngeal arch, including the muscles of facial expression, the posterior belly of the digastric, stylohyoid and stapedius. The motor division of the facial nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest.

Although the anterior two thirds of the tongue are derived from the first pharyngeal arch, which gives rise to cranial nerve V, not all innervation of the tongue is supplied by CN V. The lingual branch of the mandibular division (V3) of CN V supplies non-taste sensation (pressure, heat, texture) from the anterior part of the tongue via general visceral afferent fibers. Nerve fibers for taste are supplied by the chorda tympani branch of cranial nerve VII via special visceral afferent fibers.

FUNCTIONS
Facial expression
The main function of the facial nerve is motor control of all of the muscles of facial expression. It also innervates the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the stylohyoid muscle, and the stapedius muscle of the middle ear. All of these muscles are striated muscles of branchiomeric origin developing from the 2nd pharyngeal arch.

FACIAL SENSATION
In addition, the facial nerve receives taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue via the chorda tympani. Taste sensation is sent to the gustatory portion (superior part) of the solitary nucleus. General sensation from the anterior two-thirds of tongue are supplied by afferent fibers of the third division of the fifth cranial nerve (V-3). These sensory (V-3) and taste (VII) fibers travel together as the lingual nerve briefly before the chorda tympani leaves the lingual nerve to enter the tympanic cavity (middle ear) via the petrotympanic fissure.

It joins the rest of the facial nerve via the canaliculus for chorda tympani. The facial nerve then forms the geniculate ganglion, which contains the cell bodies of the tastefibers of chorda tympani and other taste and sensory pathways. From the geniculate ganglion, the taste fibers continue as the intermediate nervewhich goes to the upper anterior quadrant of the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus along with the motor root of the facial nerve. The intermediate nerve reaches the posterior cranial fossa via the internal acoustic meatus before synapsing in the solitary nucleus.

The facial nerve also supplies a small amount of afferent innervation to the oropharynx below the palatine tonsil. There is also a small amount of cutaneous sensation carried by the nervus intermedius from the skin in and around the auricle (outer ear).

OTHERS-
The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. Parasympathetic innervation serves to increase the flow of saliva from these glands. It also supplies parasympathetic innervation to the nasal mucosa and the lacrimal gland via the pterygopalatine ganglion. The parasympathetic fibers that travel in the facial nerve originate in the superior salivatory nucleus.

The facial nerve also functions as the efferent limb of the corneal reflex.

FUNCTIONAL COMPONNENT-
The facial nerve carries axons of type GSA, general somatic afferent, to skin of the posterior ear.

The facial nerve also carries axons of type GVE, general visceral efferent, which innervate the sublingual, submandibular, and lacrimal glands, also mucosa of nasal cavity.

Axons of type SVE, special visceral efferent, innervate muscles of facial expression, stapedius, the posterior belly of digastric, and the stylohyoid.

The axons of type SVA, special visceral afferent, provide taste to the anterior two-thirds of tongue via chorda tympani.

Finally, the facial nerve also carries axons of type GVA, general visceral afferent, which provide sensation to the soft palate and parts of the nasal

cavity.

ClINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

PALSY
People may suffer from acute facial nerve paralysis, which is usually manifested by facial paralysis. Bell’s palsy is one type of idiopathic acute facial nerve paralysis, which is more accurately described as a multiple cranial nerve ganglionitis that involves the facial nerve, and most likely results from viral infection and also sometimes as a result of Lyme disease. Iatrogenic Bell’s Palsy may also be as a result of an incorrectly placed dental local-anesthetic (Inferior alveolar nerve block). Although giving the appearance of a hemi-plegic stroke, effects dissipate with the drug.

When the facial nerve is permanently damaged due to a birth defect, trauma, or other disorder, surgery including a cross facial nerve graft or masseteric facial nerve transfer may be performed to help regain facial movement.Facial nerve decompression surgery is also sometimes carried out in certain cases of facial nerve compression.

EXAMINATION-

 

u1
Voluntary facial movements, such as wrinkling the brow, showing teeth, frowning, closing the eyes tightly (inability to do so is called lagophthalmos) , pursing the lips and puffing out the cheeks, all test the facial nerve. There should be no noticeable asymmetry.

In an UMN lesion, called central seven, only the lower part of the face on the contralateral side will be affected, due to the bilateral control to the upper facial muscles (frontalis and orbicularis oculi).

LMN lesions can result in a CNVII palsy (Bell’s palsy is the idiopathic form of facial nerve palsy), manifested as both upper and lower facial weakness on the same side of the lesion.

Taste can be tested on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. This can be tested with a swab dipped in a flavoured solution, or with electronic stimulation (similar to putting your tongue on a battery).

Corneal reflex. The afferent arc is mediated by the General Sensory afferents of the Trigeminal Nerve. The efferent arc occurs via the Facial Nerve.

The reflex involves consensual blinking of both eyes in response to stimulation of one eye. This is due to the Facial Nerve’s innervation of the muscles of facial expression, namely Orbicularis oculi, responsible for blinking. Thus, the corneal reflex effectively tests the proper functioning of both Cranial Nerves V and VII.

FACIAL NERVE PALSY-
A facial palsy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles of the face.

Whilst the majority of cases are idiopathic, termed Bell’s Palsy, there are a wide range of potential causes of a facial palsy .

Bell’s palsy is a diagnosis of exclusion and hence all possible causes have to be excluded first prior to diagnosing Bell’s palsy. The majority of this article will discuss Bell’s Palsy and its associated clinical features and management.

RISK FACTORS-
Bell’s palsy remains a poorly understood condition. Many causative associations have been proposed, the most universally accepted theory suggests a viral origin, yet no conclusive evidence is available at present.

The main risk factor for developing Bell’s palsy is known concurrent viral infection, such as HSV-1(HERPES SIMPLEX  VIRUS 1), CMV (CYTOMEGALOVIRUS), and EBV (EBSTEIN VIRUS), whilst less common risk factors.

include diabetes mellitus and pregnancy.

CLINICAL FEATURE-
Patients with a Bell’s Palsy will present with varying severity of painless unilateral lower motor neuron weakness of the facial muscles .

Depending on the severity and the ximity of the nerve affected, it can also result in:

Inability to close their eye (temporal and zygomatic branches)
Hyperacusis (nerve to stapedius)
Metallic taste (chorda tympani)
Reduced lacrimation (greater petrosal nerve)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE UMN AND LMN LESION-
To distinguish clinically between a LMN cause and UMN cause of the facial palsy, a patient with forehead sparing (i.e. no involvement to the occipitofrontalis muscle) will have a UMN origin to the palsy, due to the bilateral innervation of the forehead muscle).

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS-

LMN AND UMN LESION
LMN AND UMN LESION

Important differential diagnosis for a facial palsy, other than Bell’s Palsy, include:

      UMN causes, such as a stroke, SDH, or tumour
Will present with forehead sparing

  • LMN CAUSES
  • Infective such as acute otitis media, cholesteatoma, viral infection (including HSV-1, CMV, and EBV)
  • Neoplasm (parotid malignancy)
  • Trauma or iatrogenic
  • Neurological (Multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barré syndrome)

SYMPTOMS OF BELL’S PALSY

symptoms of bells palsy
symptoms of bells palsy

 

The onset of facial paralysis is sudden with Bell’s palsy, and can worsen during the early stages. Symptoms will usually manifest and peak within 2-3 days, although it can take as long as 2 weeks. Common symptoms include, but are not limited to:

Muscle weakness or paralysis
Facial droop
Impossible or difficult to blink
Difficulty speaking
Difficulty eating and drinking
Nose runs
Nose is constantly stuffed
Difficulty breathing out of nostril on affected side
Nostril collapse on affected side
Forehead wrinkles disappear
Sensitivity to sound
Excess or reduced salivation
Facial swelling
Drooling
Diminished or distorted taste
Pain behind ear
There are also some eye related symptoms, which may include but are not limited to:

Difficulty closing the eye
Sensitivity to light
Lower eyelid droop
Tears fail to coat cornea
Brow droop
Excessive tearing
Lack of tears

INVESTIGATION
Most cases of Bell’s Palsy can be diagnosed clinically and no further investigations are required, unless any other clinical features are present that suggest another pathology.

Serology for HSV-1 and VZV can be performed, yet will unlikely alter future management if detected.

MANAGEMENT-
Patient reassurance is essential, as most cases return spontaneously to full function. Eye care is one of the most important aspect of the management, ensuring the patient uses lubricating drops hourly and potential for eye ointment at night and / or an eye patch.

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
All patients presenting within 72 hours of symptoms onset should be started oral steroids. Current NICE guidance recommends either:

Giving 25 mg twice daily for 10 days
Giving 60 mg daily for five days followed by a daily reduction in dose of 10 mg
Use of anti-viral agents is controversial.

A Cochrane Review found low level evidence that the combination of anti-virals and corticosteroids are more effective in Bell’s palsy treatment; many centers currently treat Bell’s palsy with both.

SURGICAL REFFERAL
Referral to an ENT surgeon should be considered if there is any doubt over the diagnosis, recurrent or bilateral Bell’s palsy, or no sign of improvement after 1 month. There are surgical options available for patients who have persistent weakness or synkinesis. Synkinesis could be treated with botox injections whilst persistent weakness can be treated with anterior belly of diagastric transfer, fascia lata sling, or cross-facial nerve grafting.

A referral to ophthalmology should be made if the cornea remains exposed after attempting to close the eyelid (House Brackmann grade of IV or more).

COMPLICATIONS
85% of cases will recover from Bell’s palsy, the majority of which make a fully recovery with no evidence of residual symptoms. The factors that suggest a poor prognosis from a facial palsy include:

Complete palsy
No signs of recovery within 3 weeks
Age >60yrs
Associated pain
Ramsey Hunt syndrome
Associated HTN, DM, or pregnancy

PHYSICAL THERAPY TECHNIQUES FOR FACIAL PARALYSIS

In the first couple of days to a week after symptoms start,  physical therapist will evaluate your condition, including:

Review your medical history, and discuss any previous surgery or health conditions
Review when your current symptoms started and what makes them worse or better
Conduct a physical examination, focusing on identifying the patterns of weakness that are caused by Bell palsy

  • Facial movements of the eyebrow
  •  Eye closure
  • Ability to use the cheek in smiling
  • Ability to use the lips in a pucker
  • Ability to suck the cheeks between the teeth
  • Raising the upper lip
  • Raising or lowering the lower lip

Your physical therapist will immediately:

  • Educate you about how to protect your face and your eye
  • Show you how to manage your daily life functions while you have facial paralysis
  • Explain the expected path to recovery, so that you will know the signs and symptoms of recovery
  • Evaluate your progress, and determine whether you need to be referred to a specialist if progress is not being made The first priority is to protect your eye. The inability to completely and quickly
  • close your eye makes the eye vulnerable to injury from dryness and debris. Debris can scratch the cornea—the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and front chamber of the eye—and couldpermanently harm your vision. physical therapist will immediately show you how to protect your eye, such as:
  • Using self-made and commercial patches
  • Setting a regular schedule for refreshing eye fluids
  • Carefully closing the eye with your fingers
  • If you have partial facial movement, your therapist will teach you a few general facial exercises to do at home. These exercises will help you learn to move the weak side of your face and help you use both sides of your face together. One of the exercises is a gentle blowing action through your lips.

DURING RECOVERY
Physical therapist will help you regain the healthy pattern of movements that you need for facial expressions and function. Recovery can be challenging because:

Normally, the ability to make facial expressions and many facial movements is “automatic”;—that is, you’re born with this ability and never had to think about it before Unlike other muscles in your body, the facial muscles do not have sensors that tell your brain all of the necessary “details” about how to move Physical therapist will be your coach throughout this challenging time, guiding you through special exercises that are designed to help you relearn facial movements based on your particular movement problems. Your exercises may change over the course of recovery:

“Initiation” exercises. In the early stages, when you might have difficulty producing any facial movement at all, your therapist will teach you exercises that cause (“initiate”) facial movement. Your therapist will show you how to position your face to make it easier to move (called “assisted range of motion”) or how to “trigger” the facial muscles to do what you want them to do.

“Facilitation” exercises. Once you’re able to initiate movement of the facial muscles, your therapist will design exercises to increase the activity of the muscles, strengthen the muscles, and improve your ability to use the muscles for longer periods of time (“facilitate” muscle activity).

Movement control exercises. therapist will design exercises to:

  • Improve the coordination of your facial muscles
  • Refine your facial movements for specific functions, such as speaking or closing your eye
  • Refine movements for facial expressions, such as smiling
  • Correct abnormal patterns of facial movement that can occur during recovery
  • To work on coordinating your facial muscles, you’ll need to have a sufficient level of activation of facial muscles first.

RELAXATION- During recovery, you might have facial spasms or twitches. Your physical therapist will design exercises to reduce this unwanted muscle activity. The therapist will teach you how to recognize when you are activating the facial muscle and when the muscle is at rest. By learning to contract the facial muscle forcefully and then stop, you will be able to relax your facial muscles at will and decrease twitches and spasms.

AFTER RECOVERY-
Some people might have greater difficulty moving their face after a period of improvement in facial movement, which can make them worry that the facial paralysis is returning. However, actual recurrence of facial paralysis of the Bell Palsy type is uncommon.

New difficulty in moving the face is more likely the result of increasing the strength of the facial muscles without improving the ability to coordinate and control the movement. To keep this from happening, physical therapist will show you what facial movements you should avoid during recovery. For instance, the following might lead to abnormal patterns of facial muscle use:

Trying to make the biggest facial movement or muscle contraction that you can, such as smiling as much as you can

  • Chewing gum with great force
  • Blowing up a balloon with all of your effort to work the facial muscles
    Therapist will coach you to use your face as naturally as possible, without trying to restrict facial expressions because they look “different.”

NEUROMUSCULAR RETRAINING (NMR)
NMR involves the use of subtle but critically important exercises to teach and retrain the brain to coordinate the facial muscles more effectively and efficiently.

BENEFITS OF NMR
NMR re-teaches facial paralysis patients which muscles are required to move different parts of the face. This type of physical therapy enables a patient’s brain to reconnect facial muscles and corresponding facial movements. It teaches patients how to isolate facial muscles, use only the correct muscles to make their desired facial movements and suppress muscles that otherwise cause unwanted facial movements.

VIABLE CANDIDATE FOR NMR
Patients dealing with Bell’s palsy or other viral infections of the facial nerve often recover on their own completely and spontaneously within about three months of an initial diagnosis. For those who do not fully recover, it is possible that the facial nerve will heal improperly, which causes spontaneous, unwanted facial movements (or synkinesis). For example, when a Bell’s palsy patient tries to smile, his or her eye may twitch at the same time. In this scenario, the patient does not require additional strength in the facial muscles. Instead, he or she needs to improve facial muscle coordination to prevent facial muscles from flexing out of sequence – something that causes distorted facial movements.

MANUAL MASSAGE
Manual massage involves a series of different massage techniques. The goal of manual massage is to decrease facial muscle tightness and improve flexibility and range of motion. Initially, manual massage techniques may be performed by physical therapists, but the therapist ultimately will teach a patient the techniques so he or she can perform them regularly at home.

AEROBIC EXERCISE

AEROBIC
Aerobic exercise is sometimes known as “cardio” — exercise that requires pumping of oxygenated blood by the heart to deliver oxygen to working muscles.
Aerobic exercise stimulates the heart rate and breathing rate to increase in a way that can be sustained for the exercise session. In contrast, anaerobic (“without oxygen”) exercise is activity that causes you to be quickly out of breath, like sprinting or lifting a heavy weight.
Examples of aerobic exercises include cardio machines, spinning, running, swimming, walking, hiking, aerobics classes, dancing, cross country skiing, and kickboxing. There are many other types.
Aerobic exercises can become anaerobic exercises if performed at a level of intensity that is too high.
Aerobic exercise not only improves fitness; it also has known benefits for both physical and emotional health.
Aerobic exercise can help prevent or reduce the chance of developing some cancers, diabetes, depression, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis.
An aerobic exercise plan should be simple, practical, and realistic. Specific equipment (such as cardio machines) may be used but is not necessary for successful aerobic exercise.

TYPES OF AEROBICS
Actually, the best aerobic exercise depends on level of fitness. Aerobic exercise is a moderate intensity workout that extends over a certain period of time and uses oxygen in this process. Well, in these years, the practice of aerobics has become the most happening workout trend between the youth. Not only is performing aerobic exercise interesting, but also is very beneficial for health. There are diverse types of aerobics such as fitness, water aerobics, step aerobics, swimming, kickboxing, fitness walking, inline skating, bicycling etc.

Here we have the more generals:

LOW IMPACT AEROBICS

low impact aerobics
low impact aerobics

There exist people, who can’t perform high intensity workout, because maybe they have some health problems or their poor health conditions. For such people, low impact aerobics is the precise workout choice. Low impact aerobic exercise comprehends rhythmic movements, with exercising of the large muscle groups.

WATER AEROBICS

 

water aerobics
water aerobics

Water aerobic exercises are an agreeable way to exercise over the hot summers. Maybe the work out can seem like one splashing surrounding the pool waters, yet those who are seriously into water aerobic exercise claim it’s an excellent method to burn out unwanted flab from the body and build inner strength. In effect, health experts declare that the water aerobic exercise is good for people ailing from arthritis and other problems many times.

STEP AEROBICS

step aerobics
step aerobics

This kind of exercise is a newer version and interesting technique of aerobics. Conventional aerobics are practiced on the floor: you discover a series of dance steps such as the Pony or the Jazz Square, which are often done in four, two steps taking you in one direction, two more taking you the other direction.

DANCE AEROBICS

dance aerobics
dance aerobics

Aerobic dance integrates exercise and dance movements into routines that are practiced with the music. Many dance ways are used, including ballet, jazz, and disco. Aerobic dance classes integrate fat-burning aerobics with develop of the muscle and stretching exercises.

Your foot is on the ground all times. This kind of aerobic is slower and it is simpler to do than intermediate and advanced classes.

SPORT AEROBICS

sports aerobics
sports aerobics

Sport Aerobics is a hard and competitive sport that has a singular connection of aerobic choreography and gymnastics elements. This sport generate a chance for adolescents, and adult individuals to compete in a sport that demands less risk than gymnastics while keeping the artistic quality and fun of aerobics.

AEROBIC EXERCISE MOVES-

Aerobic exercise is good for each person. Aerobic fitness moves integrate rhythmic calisthenics or dance moves with stretching and strength training routines to provide a full-body exercise experience.

Here some moves you need to give your body a full aerobic workout:

WARM-UP MOVES
Warm-Up Moves Aerobic moves that change the heart from a resting heart rate to a warm-up rate start slowly and build in energy and intensity.Walking or marching in place is the most regular warm-up aerobic move, with your steps deepening into lunges at the end of the warm-up to add intensity, energy and increase the circulation of blood to the muscles. Other first phase moves comprehend stepping from side to side and moving the arms at waist level or higher.

Aerobic moves over the warm-up phase should also comprehend a gentle stretch of each of the major muscle groups, including the lower back.

The warm-up phase of an aerobic workout should be from 5 to 10 minutes. The objective during the warm-up phase is to elevate the body’s core temperature, warm up the muscles and joints, and get ready the body for the training portion of the workout.

AEROBIC MOVES IN THE ZONE-
Aerobic Moves In The Zone The next phase of your workout carries your body toward your target heart rate. The intensity of the movement grows and the pace of the movement grows. Some aerobic moves are universally recognized to augment intensity; for example, stopping the body’s momentum and moving the body in the contrary direction is a high intensity move. For this reason, is why aerobic routines comprehend a lot of back and forth movements and up and back movements in the middle part of the workout.

Lifting the weight of body is another high intensity aerobic move. Leaping, hopping, and powering through a move are all high intensity actions.

This part of the workout should be from 15 to 25 minutes, with intensity building at the beginning of the session, peaking mid-session, and subsiding toward the end of this phase of the aerobic workout.

COOL-DOWN AEROBIC MOVES
Cool-Down Aerobic Moves The last segment of an aerobic exercise workout is the cool-down and stretch period. The intense movements terminate, the pace of the workout decelerates, and the activity returns to the modest, gentler motions of the warm-up phase. You should not stop exercising abruptly without this cool-down phase. Maybe, you could sense dizziness and could collapse if you do. Instead, delay the pace of your exercise until your heart is beating fewer than 100 times per minute.

Terminate your aerobic moves workout by stretching all the muscles you exercised to help them return to their normal length, to increase your flexibility, and to keep your muscles flexible and toned.

THE BEGINING
It all starts with breathing. The average healthy adult inhales and exhales about 7 to 8 liters of air per minute. Once you fill your lungs, the oxygen in the air (air contains approximately 20% oxygen) is filtered through small branches of tubes (called bronchioles) until it reaches the alveoli. The alveoli are microscopic sacs where oxygen diffuses (enters) into the blood. From there, it’s a beeline direct to the heart.

AEROBIC ROUTINE

Aerobic Routine There are several millions of Americans that train with some form of aerobics routine or the other and aerobics routines have become a sport that are pleasure to perform for losing weight and staying in shape. The most common aerobics routines are the low-impact routines and dance besides is a preponderant factor that has been inspired by ballet, salsa and even hip-hop. The aerobic routine serves to increasing cardiopulmonary efficiency besides strengthening the heart and lungs. Additionally, the aerobic routine

should also assist to increase blood circulation and lower cholesterol levels as well as reduce stress and anxiety. Being a somewhat hard exercise form, the aerobics routine maybe require profound preparation and wise election, which should ensure that proper equipment is used, to avoid being injured.

A sample schedule for the beginner’s fitness enthusiast:
DAY ONE:
You should take as easy twenty-minute walk at a beautiful bright place. Look a friendly place to walk, avoid the pollution. If you can’t find one, maybe you can go to a park, beach, grassland or the countryside away from pollution. You require being able to keep up an interesting conversation. If you are in oxygen debt you won’t burn calories as well so take it easy at first. Upon returning, use approximately ten or fifteen minutes stretching. You should practice it periodically; otherwise the extra calories can accumulate in thighs or butt. When you begin with some periodic activity, the brain stars to think this body is active and needs to increase the metabolism. Then the brain will get to a higher metabolic level. As you augment your exercise program you will have more byproducts known as free radicals. This is the argument for us to work with nutrition as well, because you need to increase the antioxidants to keep the body healthy from the free radicals.
DAY TWO:
Just stretch for ten to fifteen minutes. If you find a pool, maybe you can choose swimming for ten to fifteen minutes.
DAY THREE:
Walk fast for twenty-five minutes. Stretch for fifteen, or if you have it down, it could only take ten minutes to get a fantastic stretch.
DAY FOUR:
Swim and stretch for at least twenty minutes and ten respectively.
DAY FIVE:
You might miss one. Or walk maybe longer and easy or hard depending on how you feel.
DAY SIX:
Walk a good distance faster for thirty minutes. If you feel tight walking, stop after you break into a light sweat and stretch for a few minutes. Regarding the legs and gluteus muscles. Then continue, finishing up with a good ten minute stretch.
DAY SEVEN:
If you didn’t miss one day, consider an easy walk, swim or stretch, may be do something with family or friends. If you got distressed at all during the week, then rest and just stretch or swim.

Keep this program until you may be able to walk thirty minutes without losing your breath at all. This can last two weeks for most people and up to four weeks for others. If it takes you longer, stay with twenty-five minutes for two months, and then move into the next level. If within two weeks your body serves you well, you can proceed with the next level.

Keep on the following day with an energetic walk for thirty minutes. Now we will begin to burn some fat. From now on, you workouts should last approximately forty-five minutes. As you each time get stronger, your hard days go by like your easy days, when you first started. Walking can escalate to five times per week within the first few months, depending on your body. At this level it’s not as critical as it will be when we start the strengthening program using weights, running or strengthening exercises.
SIX TO EIGHT WEEK :
After six or eight weeks, begin your strength-training program. Once again, listen to your body. If you don’t feel quite ready at six weeks, take eight. You can go in either of two directions with this addition to your program, with diverse levels of intensity depending on your body and your abilities.

If you are able and you are willing to run for your particular objectives, you may now commence to run. Begin with simple jogging for 20 minutes every day, and weight training every other day. Running at this time should be at least three days a week, the same for weight training. There is some evidence, nevertheless, that we could get by with two days of weight training and still do okay. Have one day of rest. The day you rest should be a very easy workout, stretching, swimming or family fun.

GETTING TO THE HEART OF IT
The heart has four chambers that fill with blood and pump blood (two atria and two ventricles) and some very active coronary arteries. Because of all this action, the heart needs a fresh supply of oxygen, and as you just learned, the lungs provide it. Once the heart uses what it needs, it pumps the blood, the oxygen, and other nutrients out through the large left ventricle and through the circulatory system to all the organs, muscles, and tissues that need it.

A WHOLE LOT OF PUMPING GOING ON
Heart beats approximately 60-80 times per minute at rest, 100,000 times a day, more than 30 million times per year, and about 2.5 billion times in a 70-year lifetime! Every beat of your heart sends a volume of blood , along with oxygen and many other life-sustaining nutrients, circulating through your body. The average healthy adult heart pumps about 5 liters of blood per minute.

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND MUSCLES
All that oxygen being pumped by the blood is important. In science, it’s labeled VO2, or volume of oxygen consumed. It’s the amount of oxygen the muscles extract, or consume from the blood, and it’s expressed as ml/kg/minute (milliliters per kilogram of body weight). Muscles are like engines that run on fuel (just like an automobile that runs on fuel); only our muscles use fat and carbohydrates instead of gasoline. Oxygen is a key player because, once inside the muscle, it’s used to burn fat and carbohydrate for fuel to keep our engines running. The more efficient our muscles are at consuming oxygen, the more fuel we can burn, the more fit we are, and the longer we can exercise.

AEROBICS AND FITNESS
The average sedentary adult will reach a level of oxygen consumption close to 35 ml/kg/minute during a maximal treadmill test (where you’re asked to walk as hard as you can). Translated, that means the person is consuming 35 milliliters of oxygen for every kilogram of body weight per minute.

That’ll get you through the day, but elite athletes can reach values as high as 90 ml/kg/minute! They may have good genes for one, but they also train hard. And when they do, their bodies adapt. The good news is that the bodies of mere mortals like the rest of us adapt to training too.

Heart gets stronger and pumps more blood with each beat (larger stroke volume). Elite athletes, can have stroke volumes more than twice as high as average individuals. But it’s not just that. Conditioned hearts also have greater diameter and mass (the heart’s a muscle too and gets bigger when you train it), and they pump efficiently enough to allow for greater filling time, which is a good thing because it means that more blood fills the chambers of the heart before they pump so that more blood gets pumped with each beat. Greater stroke volume means the heart doesn’t have to pump as fast to meet the demands of exercise. Fewer beats and more stroke volume mean greater efficiency. Think about a pump emptying water out of a flooded basement. The pump works better and lasts longer if it can pump larger volumes of water with each cycle than if it has to pump faster and strain to get rid of the water. High stroke volume is why athletes’ hearts don’t pump as fast during exercise and why they have such low resting heart rates; sometimes as low as 40 beats per minute, whereas the average is 60-80 beats per minutes.

Downstream from the heart are your muscles, which get more efficient at consuming oxygen when you do regular aerobic exercise (remember, “consuming” oxygen means that the muscles are taking the oxygen out of the blood). This happens because of an increase in the activity and number of enzymes that transport oxygen out of the bloodstream and into the muscle. Imagine 100 oxygen molecules circulating past a muscle.

You’re twice as fit if the muscle can consume all 100 molecules than if it can only consume 50. Another way of saying it is that you’re twice as fit as someone if your VO2 max is 60ml/kg/min. and theirs is 30ml/kg/min. In terms of performance in this scenario, you’ll have more endurance because your muscles won’t run out of oxygen as quickly.
Mitochondria inside the muscle increase in number and activity. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of your cells. They do all the heavy-duty work to keep you moving. They use the oxygen to burn the fat and carbohydrate that makes you go. The good news is that they increase in number and activity, by as much as 50%, in just a matter of days to weeks in response to regular aerobic exercise in adults of all ages.

FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE BURNING
Fat and carbohydrate are the fuels our muscles burn. The difference between them is that fat is high-test; it contains 9 calories per gram whereas carbohydrate has only 4, and so you get more energy and can go farther on a gram of fat than on a gram of carbohydrate. You want to burn fat because it’s such an efficient fuel, plus it’s nice to lose some of your excess fat! The catch is that you need more oxygen to burn fat because it’s denser than carbohydrate. The good news is that your body gets better at using oxygen and burning fat when you do regular aerobic exercise; like I described, your heart pumps more blood, your muscles consume more oxygen, and you have more mitochondria.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE AEROBIC AND ANEROBIC EXERCIS
AEROBIC EXERCISE is an activity that stimulates your heart rate and breathing to increase but not so much that you can’t sustain the activity for more than a few minutes. AEROBIC means “WITH OXYGEN ,” and ANEROBIC means “WITHOUT OXYGEN.” Anaerobic exercise is the type where you get out of breath in just a few moments, like when you lift weights for improving strength, when you sprint, or when you climb a long flight of stairs.

BENEFITS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING-

STRENGTHEN THE HEART
Aerobic exercise training is excellent for strengthening hearts and lungs. During these exercises, the tissues demand more oxygen from the blood

The heart has to beat faster to cope up with this demand, which in longer duration makes it stronger and healthier. The fast movement of the blood and heart helps to unclog the arteries.
This means that it reduces LDL (bad cholesterol).

BURNS CALORIES
Longer duration cardio can burn lots of calories
It creates a calorie deficit which is required for reducing weight.
These excess calories are burned by utilizing the excess fat content in the body making Aerobic training very effective for fat burn.

REDUCE BLOOD PRESSURE
Improves glucose tolerance and reduces insulin resistance.
Decreases clinical symptoms of ANXIETY, TENSION , and DEPRESSION.
Enhances muscles’ ability to use oxygen and increase its blood supply.
Lowers resting heart rate.
Increased muscle endurance.

Aerobics can be used as a starting step. It is a good way to start weight loss for beginners and for people who have excess body fat. Aerobic exercise steps are less demanding on the body and can be easily understood and followed.

CANCER PREVENTION
Colon cancer. Research is clear that physically active men and women have about a 30%-40% reduction in the risk of developing colon cancer compared with inactive individuals. It appears that 30-60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity is needed to decrease the risk, and there is a dose-response relationship, which means that the risk declines the more active you are. Breast cancer. There is reasonably clear evidence that physically active women have a greater reduction in risk compared with inactive women. Like colon cancer, it appears that 75 to 150 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity is needed to decrease the risk, and it is likely that there is a dose-response relationship as well. Prostate cancer. Research is inconsistent regarding whether physical activity plays any role in the prevention of this cancer. Lung cancer. There are relatively few studies on physical activity and lung cancer prevention. The available data suggest that physically active individuals have a lower risk of lung cancer; however, it is difficult to completely account for the risks of active and passive cigarette smoking as well as radon exposure. Other cancers. There is little information on the role of physical activity in preventing other cancers.

CANCER TREATMENT
There’s some good news for people undergoing cancer treatment. In one study, aerobic exercise performed five days per week for 30-35 minutes for six weeks at 80% of maximal heart rate reduced fatigue in women being treated for cancer. In another study, 10 weeks of aerobic exercise at 60% of maximum heart rate for 30-40 minutes, four days per week, reduced depression and anxiety in female cancer patients. Aerobic exercise isn’t a panacea when it comes to cancer, but evidence suggests that it certainly can help.

OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone density, which can lead to an increased risk of fracture. The good news is that exercise may increase bone density or at least slow the rate of decrease in both men and women. It may not work for everyone, and the precise amount and type of exercise necessary to accrue benefits is unknown, but there is evidence that it can help. In children there is good news, too. It seems that active children have greater bone density than sedentary children and that this may help prevent fractures later in life.

DEPRESSION
Most of us who exercise regularly understand that exercise can elevate our mood. There have been a number of studies investigating the effects of exercise on depression. In one of the most recent studies, it was shown that three to five days per week for 12 weeks of biking or treadmill for approximately 30 minutes per workout reduced scores on a depression questionnaire by 47%. It’s not a substitute for therapy in a depression that causes someone to be unable to function (in which case medication and/or psychotherapy may be necessary), but for milder forms of depression, the evidence is persuasive that it can help.

DIABETES
No study has been more conclusive about the role of lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) in preventing diabetes than the Diabetes Prevention Program. It was a study of more than 3,000 individuals at high risk for diabetes who lost 12-15 pounds and walked 150 minutes per week (five 30- minute walks per day) for three years. They reduced their risk of diabetes by 58%. That’s significant considering there are 1 million new cases of diabetes diagnosed each year. Aerobic exercise can also improve insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body doesn’t use insulin properly, and this condition can occur in individuals who do and do not have diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that helps the cells in the body convert glucose (sugar) to energy. Many studies have shown the positive effects of exercise on insulin resistance. In one, 28 obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes did aerobic exercise for 16 weeks, three times per week, for 45-60 minutes, and their insulin sensitivity improved by 20%.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
The list of studies that show that aerobic exercise prevents or reduces the occurrence of cardiovascular disease is so long that it would take this entire article and probably five others just like it to review all of the research. One of the most important is one of the earliest. In a study of more than 13,000 men and women, it was shown that the least fit individuals had much higher rates of cardiovascular disease than fit individuals  in some cases, the risk was twice as high. Aerobic exercise works in many ways to prevent heart disease; two of the most important are by reducing blood pressure and allowing blood vessels to be more compliant (more compliant means that they become less stiff and it’s less likely for fat to accumulate and clog up the vessels). Results like these have been proven over and over again.

OBESITY AND WEIGHT COTROL
Aerobic exercise is believed by many scientists to be the single best predictor of weight maintenance. You can lose weight without exercise by reducing your caloric intake enough so that you burn more calories than you consume, but it takes a regular dose of exercise to keep your weight

off. How much is not clear, but somewhere between 30 and 40 minutes of vigorous exercise several times per week, to 45 to 75 minutes of moderate intensity exercise five or more days per week is probably about right. Your mileage will vary, and so once you get to the weight that you want to be at you’ll need to experiment with different amounts of exercise until you find the one that works for you. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that overweight and obese individuals progressively increase to a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week, but for long-term weight loss, overweight and obese adults should eventually progress to 200 to 300 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity. These are general guidelines, and so again, you need to experiment to see what works for you. Aerobic exercise definitely burns lots of calories. Below is a table of minutes of continuous activity necessary to expend 300 calories based on your body weight.

COGNITIVE FUNCTION-

Scientists have recently become interested in the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function. It has been shown in rats that use of a running wheel every day stimulates new brain cells to grow in as few as 12 days. Brain cells in humans can’t be studied directly, but what has been shown is that rates of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are lower in older individuals who exercise three or more times per week compared with older adults who exercise fewer than three times per week. In some cases, the risk is 62% lower. Evidence is also accumulating that active individuals perform better on cognitive function tests such as tests of memory and spatial relations than sedentary individuals.

AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAME-

Keep it simple, keep it practical, keep it convenient, keep it realistic, keep it specific, and don’t try to make up for years of inactivity all at once. Select any activity and amount of time where the probability of sticking with it is high. You may not love walking, but if you can do it right outside your door, and it requires no special equipment, and you already know how to do it (you’ve been walking your entire life!), then walking might be your best bet for getting started because it’s so convenient.

HEART RATE RESERVE
Heart rate rises during aerobic exercise. It can rise from 70 beats per minutes (bpm) at rest to as high as 170 bpm or even higher during exercise, depending on the intensity of the exercise, your fitness level, your age, and other factors. Whether you’re training is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by the intensity of your workout, and monitoring the intensity is the key to know which one you’re doing.

For many individuals, simply monitoring how the body feels while exercising is enough to determine the proper aerobic intensity.  “warm and slightly out of breath” as the cue for aerobic activity; that is if you feel warm and slightly out of breath while you’re exercising, then that’s good enough.

Heart-rate reserve method for calculating a target heart rate. Here’s the formula and an example of the method for someone 27 years of age, assuming a resting heart rate of 70 bpm, and a training range of 70%. If you plug in other values, you can get other ranges.

220-age = Max HR.
Subtract resting heart rate from Max HR = Heart Rate Reserve (HRR).
Multiply HRR times percent you want to train at.
Add back resting heart rate.
Assuming a resting heart rate of 70 bpm, 27 years old, and 70% training range:
220 – 27 = 193
193 – 70 = 123
123 x .70% = 86
86 + 70 = 156
Please note: There’s been some recent research to suggest a new way of estimating maximum heart rate. The formula is the following:

Multiply 0.7 times your age
.
Subtract that number from 208.
An example if you’re 26 years old is: 0.7 x 26 = 18, then 208 – 18 = 190. You’d then take 190 and plug it in as usual to the formula above. This new

formula makes a slightly bigger difference as you get older.SSS

TRAINING METHOD OF AEROBIC EXERCISE
The main methods of aerobics exercise are:

1.LONG DURATION CARDIO
2.INTERVAL TRAINING

1. LONG DURATION CARDIO
Long Duration Cardio is the moves which you perform for an extended period at a steady pace.

  • For example, a walk for one hour at a speed of 4 mph or a 30 minute run at 6 mph.
  • This burns a lot of calories
  • The longer the duration, the more calories get burnt.
  • It gives the daily calorie deficit which is sought after for losing weight.
  • This is great for heavier people.
  • It can be used as a starting point for workout programs as it will help in increasing endurance and will prep the body for further exercising.

EFFECTS
The effects of Long Duration Cardio are more immediate.

  • While doing these exercises, you have the “burn,” which means you burn calories even as you are working out.
  • They don’t have any after effects.
  • There is no hike in the metabolic process after you stop performing this cardio.

2. INTERVAL TRAINING
Interval Training workout comprises of alternate high and low-intensity intervals.

  • Like any other cardio workouts, these increase the calorie burn and build endurance.
  • These give better and faster results in less time compared to Long Duration Cardio.
  • These can be the second step for the weight loss program and is better for people who have better endurance than the beginners.
  • EFFECTS
  • An ideal Interval Training session will include alternate short, high-intensity intervals and longer, lower-intensity recovery periods.
  • In high-intensity intervals, maximum effort (as hard as you can) is required (this is a form of anaerobic exercise).
  • For beginners, it can be a little less intense, which can be in a little more aerobic form.
    You’ll know that you have reached your high-intensity period when you’ll have muscle burn (the burning sensation the muscle utilized).
  • Adding few of these intervals can give better results.
  • As these are very hard and taxing they are needed to be kept short and should be accompanied by longer lower intensity intervals (which are even called recovery intervals, as you recover from the burn of the muscle).
  • In a complete workout, there are five to ten cycles of high and low intensity. According to your fitness, you can vary the lengths of each interval, the number of cycles, and intensity of the cycle.

HEART RATE TRAINING
Let’s use jogging on a treadmill as the aerobic activity in this example. For example, if your heart rate is at 70% of your predicted maximum when you jog at 6 mph, then start at that speed and either increase the speed or elevation so that your heart rate increases to 85% or even 90% for one minute, then back to your usual jogging speed for three minutes to elicit a heart rate of 70%. Start with a 1:3 work:active-rest ratio. That’s a goodstarting point, and as you increase the work intervals and decrease the active-rest ratios like in the examples above, you’ll notice that your  conditioning improves so that your heart rate will be lower at the higher speeds.

It’s a good idea to plan your intervals in advance. Write them down so that you don’t have to think about it while you’re working out. intervals no more than one to two times per week because they are tough workouts and you will need some time to recover. It’s okay to do aerobic activity on days in between your intervals, but give your body a chance to recover from the intervals before doing them again.

INCEASING DURATION AND INTENSITY
The general rule for increasing aerobic activity is 10% per week. Interestingly, there’s no evidence to suggest that a 10% increase is the safest and most effective amount of time to increase, but that’s the rule of thumb and it seems to work pretty well. So, if you’re walking for 20 minutes then the next increase ought to be two minutes for the following week. The bottom line though is to listen to your body. If you find that increasing by 10% is very easy, then go ahead and try a little more. But if you find that you are tired for hours after your workout, or chronically sore or achy from your workouts, then you know you need to cut back to 10% increases. Learn how to listen to your body and everything should be OK.

EQUIPMENTS USED IN AEROBIC
Rowers, treadmills, bikes, and cross-country skiers are all effective if you use them. There is some suggestion that some individuals are more inclined to exercise at home with equipment than at the gym or a class. The activity you choose is a personal choice and it varies for everyone, and so you need to experiment until you find what works best for you. Some individuals prefer to go to the gym while others are perfectly content to work out at home on their own equipment in front of their TV. TV can make the time pass quickly, and so can your favorite movie, music, scholarly courses taught by professors, or books on tape (see resources for online vendors). Finding something that will distract you might just make that 30-minute workout bearable, and believe it or not you might even look forward to it! After all, it could be the only 30 minutes in your day that you have all to yourself.

AEROBIC CLASSES-

Classes are generally rated as beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Choose the level that fits your condition. It’s no fun taking an advanced class if you’re a beginner. It will be hard and frustrating and you won’t enjoy the experience. Watch the class or speak with the instructor to help you decide what’s right for you. Sometimes it comes down to the class time that fits your schedule, but just be sure to not get in too far over your head.
Low-impact classes mean that one foot always stays on the ground. They are less intense than high-impact and may be more suitable if you are a beginner. Some classes are now called, “high-low” or “mixed-impact” which means they combine low and high-impact moves. High-impact means both feet leave the ground, so there will be jumping and balance moves. Stick with lower-impact and more gentle and rhythmic.

 

POSTURAL DRAINAGE

INTRODUCTION-
Postural Drainage removes mucus from certain parts of the lungs by using gravity and proper positioning to bring the secretions into the throat where it is easier to remove them. The lungs are divided into segments called lobes, the right lung is divided into three lobes (right upper lobe, right middle lobe and right lower lobe) while the left lung has only two lobes (left upper lobe and lower lobe).

SCHEDULING TREATMENT
The treatment often works best in the morning. This allows the mucus to be removed that has built up during the night. Sometimes a treatment can be done at night to reduce the need for coughing during sleep. Make sure you wait at least 1-2 hours after eating before starting you treatment. This helps to prevent nausea and or vomiting. CPT just before meals may cause you to become tired and may decrease appetite.

ANATOMY OF LUNGS

 

lung-anatomy-illustration
LUNG ANATOMY ILLUSTRATION

STEPS
1. Use specific positions so the force of gravity can assist in the removal of bronchial secretions from affected lung segments to central airways by means of coughing and suctioning.
2. The patient is positioned so that the diseased area is in a near vertical position, and gravity is used to assist the drainage of specific segment.
3. The positions assumed are determined by the location, severity, and duration of mucous obstruction.
4. The exercises are performed two to three times a day, before meals and bedtime. Each position is done for 3-15 minutes.
5. The procedure should be discontinued if tachycardia, palpitations, dyspnea, or chest occurs. These symptoms may indicate hypoxemia. Discontinue if hemoptysis occurs.
6. Bronchodilators, mucolytics agents, water, or saline may be nebulised and inhaled before postural drainage and chest percussion to reduce bronchospasm, decrease thickness of mucus and sputum, and combat edema of the bronchial walls, there by enhancing secretion removal.
7. Perform secretion removal procedures before eating.
8. Make sure patient is comfortable before the procedure starts and as comfortable as possible he or she assumes each position.
9. Auscultate the chest to determine the areas of needed drainage.
10. Encourage the patient to deep breathe and cough after spending the allotted time in each position.
11. Encourage diaphragmatic breathing through out postural drainage: this helps widen airways so secretions can be drained.

POSITION

POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS
POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS

To drain the middle and lower portions of your lungs, you should be positioned with your chest above your head. Possible techniques to achieve this position are:

If a hospital bed is available, put in Trendelenburg position (head lower than feet).
Place 3-5 wood blocks, that are 2 inches by 4 inches, in a stack that is 5 inches high, under the foot of a regular bed. Blocks should have indentations or a 1 inch rim on top so that the bed does not slip.
Stack 18-20 inches of pillow under hips.
Place on a tilt table, with head lower than feet.
Lower head and chest over the side of the bed.
To drain the upper portions of your lungs, you should be in a sitting position at about a 45 degree angle.

Postural drainage therapy is designed to improve the mobilization of bronchial secretions and the matching of ventilation and perfusion, and to normalize functional residual capacity (FRC) based on the effects of gravity and external manipulation of the thorax. This includes turning, postural drainage, percussion, vibration, and cough.

TURNING
Turning is the rotation of the body around the longitudinal axis to promote unilateral or bilateral lung expansion and improve arterial oxygenation. Regular turning can be to either side or the prone position, with the bed at any degree of inclination (as indicated and tolerated). Patients may turn themselves or they may turned by the caregiver or by a special bed or device.

POSTURAL DRAINAGE
Postural drainage is the drainage of secretions, by the effect of gravity, from one or more lung segments to the central airways (where they can be removed by cough or mechanical aspiration). Each position consists of placing the target lung segment(s) superior to the carina. Positions should generally be held for 3 to 15 minutes (longer in special situations). Standard positions are modified as the patient’s condition and tolerance warrant.

EXTERNAL MANIPULATION OF THE THORAX
A-PERCUSSION
Percussion is also referred to as cupping, clapping, and tapotement. The purpose of percussion is to intermittently apply kinetic energy to the chest wall and lung. This is accomplished by rhythmically striking the thorax with cupped hand or mechanical device directly over the lung segment(s) being drained. No convincing evidence demonstrates the superiority of one method over the other.

B-VIBRATION
Vibration involves the application of a fine tremorous action (manually performed by pressing in the direction that the ribs and soft tissue of the chest move during expiration) over the draining area. No conclusive evidence supports the efficacy of vibration, the superiority of either manual or mechanical methods, or an optimum frequency.

INDICATIONS
Turning
Inability or reluctance of patient to change body position. (eg, mechanical ventilation, neuromuscular disease, drug-induced paralysis)
Poor oxygenation associated with position(eg, unilateral lung disease)
Potential for or presence of atelectasis
Presence of artificial airway
Postural Drainage

Evidence or suggestion of difficulty with secretion clearance
(a)Difficulty clearing secretions with expectorated sputum production greater than 25-30 mL/day (adult)

(b)Evidence or suggestion of retained secretions in the presence of an artificial airway

-Presence of atelectasis caused by or suspected of being caused by mucus plugging.
-Diagnosis of diseases such as cystic fibrosis,bronchiectasis, or cavitating lung disease
-Presence of foreign body in airway.
-External Manipulation of the Thorax

(a)Sputum volume or consistency suggesting a need for additional manipulation (eg, percussion and/or vibration) to assist movement of secretions by gravity, in a patient receiving postural drainage

CONTRAINDICATIONS
The decision to use postural drainage therapy requires assessment of potential benefits versus potential risks. Therapy should be provided for no longer than necessary to obtain the desired therapeutic results. Listed contraindications are relative unless marked as absolute .

1 Positioning

All positions are contraindicated for

Intracranial pressure (ICP) > 20 mm Hg(59,60)
Head and neck injury until stabilized
Active hemorrhage with hemodynamic instability
Recent spinal surgery (eg, laminectomy) or acute spinal injury
Acute spinal injury or active hemoptysis
Empyema
Bronchopleural fistula
Pulmonary edema associated with congestive heart failure
Large pleural effusions
Pulmonary embolism
Aged, confused, or anxious patients who do not tolerate position changes
Rib fracture, with or without flail chest surgical wound or healing tissue

Trendelenburg position is contraindicated for

Intracranial pressure (ICP) > 20 mm Hg(59,60) patients in whom increased intracranial pressure is to be avoided (eg, neurosurgery, aneurysms, eye surgery)
Uncontrolled hypertension
Distended abdomen
Esophageal surgery
Recent gross hemoptysis related to recent lung carcinoma treated surgically or with radiation therapy
Uncontrolled airway at risk for aspiration (tube feeding or recent meal)

Reverse Trendelenburg is contraindicated in the presence of hypotension or vasoactive medication

2 External Manipulation of the Thorax
In addition to contraindications previously listed

subcutaneous emphysema
Recent epidural spinal infusion or spinal anesthesia
Recent skin grafts, or flaps, on the thorax
Burns, open wounds, and skin infections of the thorax
Recently placed transvenous pacemaker or subcutaneous pacemaker (particularly if mechanical devices are to be used)
Suspected pulmonary tuberculosis lung contusion
Bronchospasm
Osteomyelitis of the ribs
Osteoporosis
Coagulopathy
Complaint of chest-wall pain

COMPLICATIONS
Hypoxemia
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Acute Hypotension during Procedure
Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Pain or Injury to Muscles, Ribs, or Spine
Vomiting and Aspiration
Bronchospasm
Dysrhythmias

LIMITATIONS OF METHOD
1-Presumed effectiveness of PDT and its application may be based more on tradition and anecdotal report than on scientific evidence. The procedure has been used excessively and in patients in whom it is not indicated.

2-Airway clearance may be less than optimal in patients with ineffective cough.
3-Optimal positioning is difficult in critically ill patients.

ASSESSMENT OF OUTCOME

These represent individual criteria that indicate a positive response to therapy (and support continuation of therapy). Not all criteria are required to justify continuation of therapy (eg, a ventilated patient may not have sputum production > 30 mL/day, but have improvement in breath sounds, chest x-ray, or increased compliance or decreased resistance).

1.CHANGE IN SPUTUM PRODUCTION
If sputum production in an optimally hydrated patient is less than 25 mL/day with PDT the procedure is not justified. Some patients have productive coughs with sputum production from 15 to 30 mL/day (occasionally as high as 70 or 100 mL/day) without postural drainage. If postural drainage does not increase sputum in a patient who produces > 30 mL/day of sputum without postural drainage, the continuation of the therapy is not indicated. Because sputum production is affected by systemic hydration, apparently ineffective PDT probably should be continued for at least 24 hours after optimal hydration has been judged to be present.

2. CHANGE IN BREATH SOUNDS AND LUNG FIELDS ARE DRAINED
With effective therapy, breath sounds may ‘worsen’ following the therapy as secretions move into the larger airways and increase rhonchi. An increase in adventitious breath sounds can be a marked improvement over absent or diminished breath sounds. Note any effect that coughing may have on breath sounds. One of the favorable effects of coughing is clearing of adventitious breath sounds.

3 PATIENT SUBJECTIVE RESPONSE TO THERAPY
The caregiver should ask patient how he or she feels before, during, and after therapy. Feelings of pain, discomfort, shortness of breath, dizziness, and nausea should be considered in decisions to modify or stop therapy. Easier clearance of secretions and increased volume of secretions during and after treatments support continuation.

4. CHANGES IN VITAL SIGNS
Moderate changes in respiratory rate and/or pulse rate are expected. Bradycardia, tachycardia, or an increase in irregularity of pulse, or fall or dramatic increase in blood pressure are indications for stopping therapy.

5. CHANGES IN X-RAYS
Resolution or improvement of atelectasis may be slow or dramatic.

6. CHANGES IN ARERIAL BLOOD GAS VALUE AND OXYGN SATURATION
Oxygenation should improve as atelectasis resolves.

7. CHANGE IN VENTILATOE VARIABLE
Resolution of atelectasis and plugging reduces resistance and increases compliance.

LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
The respiratory physiology is on the process of incorporation of oxygen in the environment for the utilization of energy from the organic compounds and for the elimination of carbon dioxide.

 

LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES
                              LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

TIDAL VOLUME(500 ml)
The volume of air breathed in and out at rest is known as the tidal volume (TV). This is found to be about 500 ml in an averagely built (70 kg), healthy, young adult. The tidal volume tends to decrease in restrictive lung diseases. In restrictive lung diseases, the lungs fail to expand properly as a result of restrictive forces exerted from within the lungs (e.g. – fibrosing alveolitis) or from the thoracic wall (e.g. – severe scoliosis, ankylosing spondylitis). Weakness of the respiratory muscles (e.g. – myasthenia gravis, Guillain Barre syndrome and phrenic nerve palsy) can also give rise to restricted movements of the chest wall resulting in the reduction of the tidal volume.

INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME (IRV)(3100 ml) AND
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME(ERV)(1200 ml)
In addition to the amount of air that could be inspired at rest, the lungs are capable of accommodating an additional amount of air during a deep inspiration. This amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the tidal volume is known as the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Similarly, in a deep and forceful expiration, the lungs are capable of exhaling a volume which is in excess to the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume. This is known as the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). In a healthy young adult, IRV measures about 3100 ml and the ERV is approximately 1200 ml.

RESIDUAL VOLUME(1200 ml)
The lungs do not collapse completely following a deep, forceful expiration. A certain volume of air remains within the lungs, maintaining the alveoli expanded and the airways patent. This volume, which cannot be expelled even after a maximally forceful expiration, is known as the residual volume (RV).

MEASURMENT OF LUNG VOLUMES – (SPIROMETRY)

The tidal volume,tidal volume, IRV and ERV can be measured using a device known as a spirometer. Here, the volume changes that occur in a closed circuit are measured while an individual is breathing through a mouthpiece into a measuring device. The volume change that occurs while the individual is engaged in quite breathing is the tidal volume. The volume that the individual inhales in excess of the tidal volume during a deep inspiration is the IRV and the volume that is exhaled in excess to the tidal volume during a deep expiration is the ERV.

MEASURMENT OF RESIDUAL VOLUME – (HELIUM DILUTION)

 

helium dilution method
                         HELIUM DILUTION METHOD

The residual volume cannot be measured with a conventional spirometer. Therefore, to measure the residual volume, several techniques have been described. In one such technique, an individual breaths into a closed circuit, which contains a known amount of Helium. Helium does not cross the blood-gas barrier and is not excreted by the lungs. Thus, decrease in the concentration of Helium is brought about by the increase in the volume of the circuit by connecting the circuit to the respiratory system. When, the concentration of Helium is measured following a deep expiration, the total volume is the volume of the breathing circuit + the residual volume. Since concentration = amount of a substance / volume of distribution, the residual volume can be calculated.

LUNG CAPACITIES-

Four capacities have been described based on the four lung volumes:

1.Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is the maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following a resting state. This can be calculated by the addition of tidal volume and the IRV-3600 ml

2.Vital Capacity (VC) is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled following a deep inspiration. This is the total of IRV + TV + ERV- 4800ml

3.Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs during quite breathing. FRC = ERV + RV 2400 ml

4.Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the volume the whole respiratory system can accommodate. Therefore, TLC= IRV + TV + ERV + RV 6000ml.

Lung capacities and lung volumes are affected in different types of physiological processes as well as in lung diseases. The specific changes that occur in different types of diseases will be described in a separate hub along with examples for different patterns of abnormalities seen in the lung volumes.

NEBULISER

DEFINITION
Nebulization is the process of medication administration via inhalation. It utilizes a nebulizer which transports medications to the lungs by means of mist inhalation.

TYPES OF NEBULISER-
There is a huge market for different types of nebulizers and each of them have some unique features although they all function in a similar way. Here are the two basic types of nebulizers available in the market:

STATIONARY NEBULISER – these are the nebulizers that are sturdy, rest on top of the table and they can provide durability as most of them come with a longer warranty period. They are cheaper than the mobile nebulizers and serve as a good aid for usage for children or elderly patients. Stationery nebulizers are mostly for indoor use only and are seldom used outdoors.

MOBILE NEBULISER – these nebulizers provide most mobility as they can be hand held and carried with the patient wherever they go. They have alternative power sources like batteries or auto adapters which enable them with usage at areas where there is no or limited access to AC power. Since they are mobile in nature, these nebulizers are lighter than the stationery ones and also smaller in size.

ULTRASONIC NEBULISER – Ultrasonic nebulizers deliver the medicine through high frequency vibrations in order to change the liquid medication into a mist to inhale and feel relaxed.

The fine mist is inhaled through an attached mask or the mouthpiece as the ultrasonic nebulizers doesn’t condense air, they function quietly and are small in size to fit into any container to begin the function. Being portable, compact and battery operated, they work fast when compared to other nebulizers and utilize the ultrasonic waves to aerosolize the liquid medication.

JET NEBULISER – A jet nebulizer is a machine which changes the prescribed liquid medicine into a fine mist to let the child or the patient breathes in through the mouthpiece or the face mask. It delivers the medicine directly to the inhaler’s lungs, making it easy to use.

These are less expensive and are usually in the form of a plastic cup which holds the medication and allows the air pass through the tube with the help of the compressor. Basically, jet nebulizers require electricity, frequently to function which is not advised safe to carry or depend on during travel. It produces loud sound and offers a range of particle sizes to change a liquid into a mist.

MESH NEBULISER – A Mesh Nebulizer is considered as the fastest working device and is more expensive when compared to the other nebulizers. It operates on a battery power supply and is quiet, efficient and well suits to the aerosolize solutions. It generates the mono-disperse aerosol particles of 4.5 to 5µm. It utilizes a vibrating membrane to generate the aerosol mist from the medication.

Available in a compact and portable body, it is perfect to carry while travelling and use in case of need. Besides this, Mesh nebulizer requires proper care, careful handling and intense cleaning as the membrane is more prone to get blocked and requires replacement many times in a year for proper function of inhalation process.

INDICATION
Nebulization therapy is used to deliver medications along the respiratory tract and is indicated to various respiratory problems and diseases such as:
•Broncho-spasms
•chest tightness
•Excessive and thick mucus secretions
•Respiratory congestions
•Pneumonia

CONTRAINDICATIONS
In some cases, nebulization is restricted or avoided due to possible untoward results or rather decreased effectiveness such as:
•Patients with unstable and increased blood pressure
•Individuals with cardiac irritability (may result to dysrhythmias)
•Persons with increased pulses
•Unconscious patients (inhalation may be done via mask but the therapeutic effect may be significantly low

EQUIPMENTS
•Nebulizer and nebulizer connecting tubes
•Compressor oxygen tank
•Mouthpies, Respiratory medication to be administered
•Normal saline solution

PROCEDURE

1.Position the patient appropriately, allowing optimal ventilation.

2.Assess and record breath sounds, respiratory status, pulse rate and other significant respiratory functions.

3.Teach patient the proper way of inhalation:

Slow inhalation through the mouth via the mouthpiece
Short pause after the inspiration
Slow and complete exhalation
Some resting breaths before another deep inhalation.

4.Prepare equipments at hand

5.Check doctor’s orders for the medication, prepare thereafter
6.Place the medication in the nebulizer while adding the amount of saline solution ordered
7.Attach the nebulizer to the compressed gas source
8.Attach the connecting tubes and mouthpiece to the nebulizer
9.Turn the machine on (notice the mist produced by the nebulizer)
10.Offer the nebulizer to the patient, offer assistance until he is able to perform proper inhalation (if unable to hold the nebulizer [pediatric/geriatric/special cases], replace the mouthpiece with mask.

COMPLICATIONS
Possible effects and reactions after nebulization therapy are as follows:
•Palpitations
•Tremors
•Tachycardia
•Headache
•Nausea
•Broncho-spasms (too mu

NEBULISERch ventilation may result or exacerbate Broncho-spasms)

•TEACHINGS
As nurses, it is important that we teach the patients the proper way of doing the therapy to facilitate effective results and prevent complications (demonstration is very useful). Emphasize compliance to therapy and to report untoward symptoms immediately for apposite intervention.

Auscultatory gap is the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the cuff pressure is high and the reappearance of the sounds at a lower level.

Provide excellent clues to the physiological functioning of the body.
•Alterations in body flexion are reflected in the body temp, pulse, respirations and blood pressure.
•These data provide part of the baseline info from which plan of care is developed.
•Any change from normal is considered to be an indication of the person’s state of health.

PNEUMOTHORAX AND PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT

DEFINATION-
”A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall”. Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath. In a minority of cases the amount of air in the chest increases when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a tension pneumothorax.
This condition can cause a steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure. Unless reversed by effective treatment, it can result in death.Very rarely both lungs may be affected by a pneumothorax.It is often called a collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis.

TYPES OF PNEUMOTHORAX

TYPES OF PNEUMOTHORAX
TYPES OF PNEUMOTHORAX

The two basic types of pneumothorax are traumatic pneumothorax and nontraumatic pneumothorax. Either type can lead to a tension pneumothorax if the air surrounding the lung increases in pressure. A tension pneumothorax is common in cases of trauma and requires emergency medical treatment.

TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX
    TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX

TRAUMATIC PNEUMOTHORAX
Traumatic pneumothorax occurs after some type of trauma or injury has happened to the chest or lung wall. It can be a minor or significant injury. The trauma can damage chest structures and cause air to leak into the pleural space.

Examples of injuries that can cause a traumatic pneumothorax include:

Trauma to the chest from a motor vehicle accident
Broken ribs
A hard hit to the chest from a contact sport, such as from a football tackle
A stab wound or bullet wound to the chest
Medical procedures that can damage the lung, such as a central line placement, ventilator use, lung biopsies, or CPR
Changes in air pressure from scuba diving or mountain climbing can also cause a traumatic pneumothorax.
The change in altitude can result in air blisters developing on your lungs and then rupturing, leading to the lung collapsing.

Quick treatment of a pneumothorax due to significant chest trauma is critical. The symptoms are often severe, and they could contribute to potentially fatal complications such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, shock, and death.

NON-TRAUMATIC PNEUMOTHORAX-
This type of pneumothorax doesn’t occur after injury. Instead, it happens spontaneously, which is why it’s also referred to as spontaneous pneumothorax.

There are two major types of spontaneous pneumothorax:
1.primary and 2. secondary.
1.Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) occurs in people who have no known lung disease, often affecting young males who are tall and thin.
2.Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) tends to occur in older people with known lung problems.

Some conditions that increase your risk of SSP include:

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis
  • Acute or chronic infection, such as tuberculosis or pneumonia
  • Lung cancer
  • Cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disease that causes mucus to build up in the lungs
  • Asthma, a chronic obstructive airway disease that causes inflammation
  • Spontaneous hemopneumothorax (SHP) is a rare subtype of spontaneous pneumothorax. It occurs when both blood and air fill the pleural cavity Without any recent trauma or history of lung disease.

SYMPTOMS OF PNEUMOTHORAX
The symptoms of a traumatic pneumothorax often appear at the time of chest trauma or injury, or shortly afterward. The onset of symptoms for a spontaneous pneumothorax normally occurs at rest. A sudden attack of chest pain is often the first symptom.

Other symptoms may include:

  • A steady ache in the chest
  • Shortness of breath, or dyspnea
  • Breaking out in a cold sweat
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Turning blue, or cyanosis
  • Severe tachycardia, or a fast heart rate

RISK FACTOR FOR TRAUMATIC PNEUMOTHORAX
The risk factors are different for a traumatic and spontaneous pneumothorax.

Risk factors for a traumatic pneumothorax include:

  • Playing hard contact sports, such as football or hockey
  • Performing stunts that may cause damage to the chest
  • Having a history of violent fighting
  • Having a recent car accident or fall from a height
  • Recent medical procedure or ongoing assisted respiratory care

The people at highest risk for a PSP are those who are:

  • Young
  • Thin
  • Male
  • Between the ages of 10 and 30
  • Affected by congenital disorders like Marfan’s syndrome
  • Smokers
  • Exposed to environmental or occupational factors, such as silicosis
  • Exposed to changes in atmospheric pressure and severe weather changes
  • The main risk factor for SSP is having previously been diagnosed with a lung disease. It’s more common in people over 40.

DIAGNOSIS
Diagnosis is based on the presence of air in the space around the lungs. A stethoscope may pick up changes in lungs sounds, but detecting a small pneumothorax can be difficult. Some imaging tests may be hard to interpret due to the air’s position between the chest wall and lung.

Imaging tests commonly used to diagnose pneumothorax include:

An upright posteroanterior chest radiograph

CHEST RADIOGRAPH
CHEST RADIOGRAPH

A CT scan
A thoracic ultrasound

TREATMENT

Treatment will depend on the severity of condition. It will also depend on whether you’ve experienced pneumothorax before and what symptoms you are experiencing. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are available.Treatment options can include close observation combined with the insertion of chest tubes, or more invasive surgical procedures to resolve and prevent further collapse of the lung. Oxygen may be administered.

OBSERVATION-
Observation or “watchful waiting” is typically recommended for those with a small PSP and who aren’t short of breath. In this case, your doctor will monitor your condition on a regular basis as the air absorbs from the pleural space. Frequent X-rays will be taken to check if your lung has fully expanded again. doctor will likely instruct you to avoid air travel until the pneumothorax as completely resolved.

Routine physical activity hasn’t been shown to worsen or delay healing of a pneumothorax. However, it’s often advised that intense physical activity or high-contact sports be delayed until the lung is fully healed and the pneumothorax is gone.

A pneumothorax can cause oxygen levels to drop in some people. This condition is called HYPOXEMIA . If this is the case, doctor will order oxygen supplementation along with activity limitations.

DRAINING EXCESS AIR
Needle aspiration and chest tube insertion are two procedures designed to remove excess air from the pleural space in the chest. These can be done at the bedside without requiring general anesthesia.Needle aspiration may be less uncomfortable than placement of a chest tube, but it’s also more likely to need to be repeated.For a chest tube insertion, doctor will insert a hollowed tube between your ribs. This allows air to drain and the lung to reinflate. The chest tube may remain in place for several days if a large pneumothorax exists.

PLEURODESIS
Pleurodesis is a more invasive form of treatment for a pneumothorax. This procedure is commonly recommended for individuals who’ve had repeated episodes of pneumothorax.During pleurodesis, doctor irritates the pleural space so that air and fluid can no longer accumulate. The term “PLEURA” refers to the membrane surrounding each lung. Pleurodesis is performed to make your lungs’ membranes stick to the chest cavity. Once the pleura adheres to the chest wall, the pleural space no longer expands, and this prevents formation of a future pneumothorax.

Mechanical pleurodesis is performed manually. During surgery, your surgeon brushes the pleura to cause inflammation. Chemical pleurodesis is another form of treatment. doctor will deliver chemical irritants to the pleura through a chest tube. The irritation and inflammation cause the lung pleura and chest wall lining to stick together.

SURGERY
Surgical treatment for pneumothorax is required in certain situations. You may need surgery if you’ve had a repeated spontaneous pneumothorax. A large amount of air trapped in chest cavity or other lung conditions may also warrant surgical repair.There are several types of surgery for pneumothorax. One option is a THORACOTOMY. During this surgery, surgeon will create an incision in the pleural space to help them see the problem. Once your surgeon has performed a thoracotomy, they’ll decide what must be done to help you heal.

Another option is THORACOSCOPY, also known as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). surgeon inserts a tiny camera through chest wall to help them see inside your chest. A thoracoscopy can help surgeon decide on the treatment for pneumothorax. The possibilities include sewing blisters closed, closing air leaks, or removing the collapsed portion of lung, which is called a LOBECTOMY.

PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT

Indications for Physiotherapy

Lung collapse
Increased work of breathing
Thick sputum plugs predisposing to ventilation difficulty
Blood gas abnormalities
Sputum retention

Goals for Physiotherapy

To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
To improve distribution of ventilation
To increase oxygenation
Maintain airway clearance
Improve exercise tolerance

Physiotherapy Management
       To reduce work of breathing

  • Body positioning
  • Breathing control
  • Relaxation technique
    To improve ventilation
  • Localised thoracic expansion exercise
  • Sputum mobilisation techniques
  • Postural drainage
  • Deep breathing exercise
  • Percussion, shaking and vibrations
  • Sputum removal techniques
  • Coughing and huffing
  • Airway suctioning

Physiotherapy outcome evaluation includes

Respiratory rate
Breathing pattern
Sputum quantity
Ausculatation
Cough sound
Oxygen requirement
SpO2
Arterial blood gases
Chest x-ray changes
Muscle strength
Functional performance

LEPROSY

DEFINATION OF LEPROSY :

1 : A chronic infectious disease caused by a mycobacterium (Mycobacterium leprae) affecting especially the skin and peripheral nerves and characterized by the formation of nodules or macules that enlarge and spread accompanied by loss of sensation with eventual paralysis, wasting of muscle, and production of deformities — called also Hansen’s disease
2 : A morally or spiritually harmful influenceThe first system recognizes two types of leprosy: tuberculoid and lepromatous. A person’s immune response to the disease determines their type of leprosy.

The immune response is good and the disease only exhibits a few lesions (sores on the skin) in tuberculoid leprosy. The disease is mild and only mildly contagious.

The immune response is poor in lepromatous leprosy and affects the skin, nerves, and other organs. There are widespread lesions and nodules (large lumps and bumps). This disease is more contagious.

WHO categorizes the disease based on the type and number of affected skin areas. The first category is paucibacillary, in which five or fewer lesions with no bacteria are detected in the skin sample. The second category is multibacillary, in which there are more than five lesions, bacteria is detected in the skin smear, or both.

CLASSIFICATION OF LEPROSY :

Clinical studies use the Ridley-Jopling system. It has six classifications based on severity of symptoms. They are:

1. Intermediate leprosy: a few flat lesions that sometimes heal by themselves and can progress to a more severe type

2. Tuberculoid leprosy: a few flat lesions, some large and numb; some nerve involvement; can heal on its own, persist, or may progress to a more severe form.

3. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy: lesions similar to tuberculoid but smaller and more numerous; less nerve enlargement; may persist, revert to tuberculoid, or advance to another form.

4. Mid-borderline leprosy: reddish plaques, moderate numbness, swollen lymph glands; may regress, persist, or progress to other forms.

5. Borderline lepromatous leprosy: many lesions including flat lesions, raised bumps, plaques, and nodules, sometimes numb; may persist, regress, or progress.

6. Lepromatous leprosy: many lesions with bacteria; hair loss; nerve involvement; limb weakness; disfigurement; doesn’t regress.

TRANSMISSION OF LEPROSY :

Leprosy spreads through contact with the mucus of an infected person. This usually occurs when the infected person sneezes or coughs. The disease isn’t highly contagious. Close, repeated contact with an untreated person can lead to contracting leprosy.

The bacteria responsible for leprosy multiply very slowly. The disease has an incubation period (the time between infection and the appearance of the first symptoms) of up to five years. Symptoms may not appear for as long as 20 years.

According to the New England Journal of Medicine, an armadillo native to the southern United States can also carry and transmit the disease to humans.

SYMPTOMS :

 

BLISTER FORMATION IN LEPROSY

Symptoms mainly affect the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes (the soft, moist areas just inside the body’s openings).

The disease can cause skin symptoms such as:

A large, discolored lesion on the chest of a person with Hansen’s disease.
A large, discolored lesion on the chest of a person with Hansen’s disease.

Discolored patches of skin, usually flat, that may be numb and look faded (lighter than the skin around)
Growths (nodules) on the skin
Thick, stiff or dry skin
Painless ulcers on the soles of feet
Painless swelling or lumps on the face or earlobes
Loss of eyebrows or eyelashes
Symptoms caused by damage to the nerves are:

Numbness of affected areas of the skin
Muscle weakness or paralysis (especially in the hands and feet)
Enlarged nerves (especially those around the elbow and knee and in the sides of the neck)
Eye problems that may lead to blindness (when facial nerves are affected)
Enlarged nerves below the skin and dark reddish skin patch overlying the nerves affected by the bacteria on the chest of a patient with Hansen’s disease. This skin patch was numb when touched.
Enlarged nerves below the skin and dark reddish skin patch overlying the nerves affected by the bacteria on the chest of a patient with Hansen’s disease. This skin patch was numb when touched.

Symptoms caused by the disease in the mucous membranes are:

A stuffy nose
Nosebleeds
Since Hansen’s disease affects the nerves, loss of feeling or sensation can occur. When loss of sensation occurs, injuries such as burns may go unnoticed. Because you may not feel the pain that can warn you of harm to your body, take extra caution to ensure the affected parts of your body are not injured.

If left untreated, the signs of advanced leprosy can include:

Paralysis and crippling of hands and feet
Shortening of toes and fingers due to reabsorption
Chronic non-healing ulcers on the bottoms of the feet
Blindness
Loss of eyebrows
Nose disfigurement
Other complications that may sometimes occur are:

Painful or tender nerves
Redness and pain around the affected area
Burning sensation in the skin

LEPROSY DIAGNOSIS :

The diagnosis of leprosy is often established from the patient’s clinical signs and symptoms. A careful skin exam and neurologic exam will be undertaken by a health-care professional. If a laboratory is available, skin smears or skin biopsies may be obtained for a more definitive diagnosis. Skin smears or biopsy material that show acid-fast bacilli with the Ziel-Neelsen stain or the Fite stain can diagnose multibacillary leprosy. If bacteria are absent, paucibacillary leprosy can be diagnosed. Other less commonly used tests include blood exams, nasal smears, and nerve biopsies. Specialized tests can be done to place the patient in the more detailed Ridley-Jopling classification.

PREVENTION:

Early detection of the disease is important, since physical and neurological damage may be irreversible even if cured. Medications can decrease the risk of those living with people with leprosy from acquiring the disease and likely those with whom people with leprosy come into contact outside the home.However, concerns are known of resistance, cost, and disclosure of a person’s infection status when doing follow-up of contacts. Therefore, the WHO recommends that people who live in the same household be examined for leprosy and be treated only if symptoms are present.

The Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine offers a variable amount of protection against leprosy in addition to its target of tuberculosis. It appears to be 26 to 41% effective (based on controlled trials) and about 60% effective based on observational studies with two doses possibly working better than one. Development of a more effective vaccine is ongoing.

SELF-CARE AT HOME FOR LEPROSY

Prescribed antibiotics medications are the primary treatment for leprosy. Compliance with the full course of antibiotics is crucial to successful treatment.

Patients should also be educated to closely inspect their hands and feet for possible injuries sustained which may go unnoticed because of the loss of sensation.

1. Ulcers or tissue damage can result, leading to skin infections and disability.
2. Proper footwear and injury prevention should be encouraged.

LEPROSY TREATMENT:

Leprosy is a curable disease using the highly effective MDT (multidrug therapy).

In 1981, a World Health Organization Study Group recommended multidrug treatment with three medications: dapsone, rifampicin (Rifadin), and clofazimine (Lamprene).

This long-term treatment regimen cures the disease and prevents the complications associated with leprosy if started in its early stages.

The National Hansen’s Disease Programs (NHDP) currently recommends different treatment regimens for patients with tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy.

NHDP recommendations:

1.Tuberculoid leprosy:

Twelve months of treatment using rifampin and Dapsone daily

2. Lepromatous leprosy
Twenty-four months of treatment using rifampin, dapsone, and clofazimine daily
The WHO recommended therapy for leprosy is given significantly shorter and less often, as this treatment policy is based upon practical considerations in countries with fewer medical resources. However, the relapses with treatment according to the WHO recommendations are significantly greater than those with the NHDP recommended therapy.

Individuals who develop type 1 or type 2 reactions may require other medications.

Type 1 reaction (reversal reaction):
Treatment may include the use of corticosteroids, salicylates, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Type 2 reaction (ENL):
Treatment may include the use of corticosteroids, salicylates, NSAIDs, clofazimine, and thalidomide (Thalomid).

SYRGICAL TREATMENT FOR LEPROSY:

There are various surgical procedures available for certain patients with leprosy. These surgical procedures are aimed at restoring function of affected body parts (for example, correcting clawed hand deformities) and to cosmetically improving areas damaged by the disease. Amputation of affected body parts is sometimes necessary. Surgery may also be necessary to drain a nerve abscess (pus collection) or to relieve the compression of nerves.

Some patients with leprosy may require psychological counseling, physical therapy, and occupational therapy.

DEFORMITIES IN LEPROSY:

Deformities occurring in leprosy:

1 .nose deformities
2. Face Deformities
3. Mask face, faces leonina, sagging face, lagophthaimos, loss of eye brows (supercilliary madorosis and eyelashes (ciliary madarosis),
4. ulcers and opacities, perforated nose, depressed nose, ear deformities, e.g. nodules on the ear and elongated lobules.

5. Hands deformities Hands deformitiesHands Deformities:

 

CLAW HAND DEFORMITY

Claw hand, wrist drop, ulcers, absorption of digits, thumb – web contracture, hollowing of the interossecus spaces and swollen hand.

6. Feet Deformities
Planter ulcer, foot drop, inversion of the foot, clawing of the toes, absorption of the toes, collapsed foot, swollen foot and callosities.

7. Other Deformities
Gynecomastia and perforation of the palate. All along it has commonly been believed that it is highly contagious and incurable. Even today, in spite of scientific information available about leprosy, it is deeply rooted in the minds of most people at all levels of society, with the result that social ostracism is apparent everywhere. This has led patients to hide their early lesions, and thereby delay treatment just at the period when they could be most speedily cured. Failure to appreciate the importance of the social and psychological factors has resulted in the failure of otherwise well conceived programs.

GOALS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR NON-SURGICAL PATIENT’S OF LEPROSY DISEASE :

The major aim is to prevent or reduce complication, deformity and disability in body through Physical Therapy.

Means

The ways of reaching these Goals are-

By teaching the patient.
By treating and helping the patient.
Teachings

What the disease of leprosy is?
The possible complications and deformities resulting from leprosy.
prevention of complication, deformities and disabilities.
Treating and Helping

To respect themselves enough to take medication regularly and to take care of complications.
To protect their own anaesthetic hands, feets and eyes.
To keep their skin soft and supple.
To keep their joint flexible.
To preserve all posible movements of hands and feet.
To keep their muscles strong.
To use their hands, feet and eyes safely, in daily work

GOALS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR SURGICAL PATIENTS OF LEPROSY:

To protect and prevent further damage and deformity.
To improve and restore function.
To improve appearance of hands, feet, face and eyLEPROSY AND SPLINT FOR HAND

Surgical Techniques used in Leprosy Disease

Tendon Transfer: Moving the distal end of the tendon to a new place so that contraction of muscle belly will produce a needed movements used to replace paralysed muscles. Example- Transfer of fore-arm muscle to make finger movements.
Tendon Lengthening: Lengthening the tendon of a muscle to permit more movement and reduce contracture. Example- Tendo Calcaneus lengthening.
Capsulotomy: To loosen tight joint capsule often done with tendon lengthening and tendon transfer to improve range of motions. Tighten the loose joint capsule using suture.
Arthrodesis: Elimination of unstable and deformed joints.
Tenodesis: Attach a piece of tendon across the joint to reduce the movement. The tendon then act as ligament. Example- Tenodesis of MCP joint to prevent hyperextension.
Physical Therapy Goals:

To increase and regain range of motion.
Improve muscle strength perticularly in muscles to be transferred.
Clean supple skin in areas of surgery.
Teach home self care.
Protect tissue during wearing.
Prevent/reduce swelling.
Muscle re-education after tendon transfer.
Safe use of any new restored skill in work.

PHYSICAL THERAPY TREATMENT::

For increasing/regaining ROM: ROM can be increased by soaking the skin or part in warm water and then performing passive movement to the part affected.
To improve strength specially in tendon transfer: Active exercise in all part in which surgery is performed.
Clean supple skin: It is provided by soaking the part in soap water, rubbing off thick skin, oiling, self massage and protecting the part from infection.
Home care: teaching skin, hand, foot and eye care to groups and individuals and teaching the patients actual home care.
Protect tissue during healing: Rest, body position and POP cast.
Prevent/Reduce swelling: Elevation, active and passive exercise.
Muscle Re-education after tendon transfer: Teaching new restored skills in movements provided by tendon transfer.
Self restored skills in daily work: Teaching patient ot use any new skill safely in specific task. Providing hand, eye and foot protection.

SPLINT FOR LEG